Sunday, September 25, 2011

Physics News: Faster Than Light

The physics world has been aroused from a long intellectual slumber by the report from CERN investigators that some muon neutrinos may travel faster than the speed of light [1], possibly violating an essential premise of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Confirmation and hopefully replication of this result would lend support for the long-standing prediction of binary mechanics (BM) [2] that absolute maximum velocity at the single bit level is substantially greater than the observed speed of light (e.g., [3] [4] [5]). Consequences of this BM prediction might result in a number of situations in which apparent faster-than-light motion could be observable.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Physics News: Electron Shape

Physics News will be a new feature of this informal journal of binary mechanics (BM) [1] highlighting research supporting predictions of the theory. This installment considers the BM prediction that the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron is exactly zero. A recent report by Hudson et. al. in Nature on "Improved measurement of the shape of the electron" [2] states: "This result, consistent with zero, indicates that the electron is spherical at this improved level of precision." In an email exchange with one of the six co-authors of this paper, I wrote:
In binary mechanics (e.g., "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" ... [3]), which postulates an internal structure for the electron, the constituent bits (called mites) "spin" in a plane orthogonal to the spin axis, where each of three possible equally-spaced mite bit loci is equidistant from the particle's center of mass and symmetrically located around the spin axis. reporting on your Nature letter states (AFAIK, their words, not yours): "If the electrons were not perfectly round then, like an unbalanced spinning-top, their motion would exhibit a distinctive wobble, distorting the overall shape of the molecule. The researchers saw no sign of such a wobble."

Saturday, September 17, 2011

A Law of Motion

Several consequences of the postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [1] may be summarized in a basic physics law of motion, namely that objects tend to move in the direction of higher bit density. Fig. 1 illustrates this idea for one spatial dimension.

Fig. 1: A Law of Motion

This working hypothesis of a fundamental law of motion in physics is applicable for objects ranging from elementary particles to astronomical objects such as planets and entire galaxies. This note reviews some results and logic supporting this hypothesis.

Sunday, August 7, 2011

Gravity Increased By Lunar Surface Temperature Differential

Abstract presented at April 13-16 APS meeting:
Bulletin of the American Physical Society 58(4) 186 (2013)

Abstract and Introduction
Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data [1] grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. These results support the prediction by binary mechanics (BM) [2] that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature [3].

Methods and Results
Fig. 1: Lunar Distance vs Days from Full Moon

Monday, June 20, 2011

Blackbody and Hydrogen Spectrums from Binary Mechanical Postulates?

Possible blackbody and hydrogen spectrums produced by binary mechanical (BM) postulates [1] as evolved over time with simulation software [2] and a new spectrum analysis program are presented. Examples of these spectrums (e.g., Fig. 1) may have implications for (1) length conversion functions between BM and observational spaces [3] [4] (2) correct BM bit operations order for time-development of BM system states [5] and (3) calibration of temperature in degrees Kelvin in terms of average single mite bit motion due to electromagnetic (EM) forces [6] [7].

Fig. 1: Spectrum of 40x40x40 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 13)

Saturday, June 11, 2011

Solved Physics Mysteries

Updated: June 26, 2011
Binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a theory of everything based on simple postulates in which the universe is implemented with a single fundamental object called the spot unit consisting of two binary bits. Based on position parities in BM space (Table 1 in [1]), these two bits determine, among other things, electric and color charges for leptons and quarks (the mite bit) and direction of bit motion (the lite bit) according to four fundamental bit operations which define exact time-development of BM states (1-state bit distributions).

An interesting Wikipedia article titled "List of Unsolved Problems in Physics" [2] provides an opportunity to take stock of the development of the theory of BM to date. Hence, this article will follow the general outline of the Wikipedia article with several objectives -- (1) provide hopefully helpful commentary for students of BM, (2) suggest where unsolved problems may be successfully addressed by the theory of BM and its software simulation technology [3], and (3) tabulate as solved those items where BM may have already adequately addressed, in whole or part, particular unsolved problems.

Friday, June 10, 2011

Fine-Structure Constant Alpha

Length conversion functions mapping distance measurements in binary mechanics (BM) [1] to experimental length measurements [2] may contain the fine-structure constant α. If so, this constant may be more fundamental than previously thought. For example, α is a coupling constant for strength of electromagnetic (EM) effects and a key component of the Rydberg constant R crucial in explaining spectrums of EM radiation emitted from material such as hydrogen. On the other hand, if α appears in the proposed length conversion functions, then α is fundamental to all physical phenomena, not just EM effects, because experimental length measurements in study of any physical phenomenon could be mapped from corresponding lengths in BM space containing the underlying mechanisms for the studied phenomenon.

Friday, June 3, 2011

Fundamental Physics Constants

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] raises challenging questions about a number of physical constants. A major question concerns the number of constants, namely that there seem to be too many apparently fundamental constants in physics, given the apparent simplicity of BM. For example, 1-state bit motion due to the four fundamental bit operations which define time-development of BM states does not explicitly require constants such as vacuum permittivity or permeability for this bit flux. Indeed, the need for such constants other than one may be viewed as an indication of the degree to which physical theories that require them are not fundamental.

This report presents functions to scale physical measurements of length to BM fundamental distance units and inversely, to project distance measurements in BM space to experimental measurements in meters. In a possible milestone for the theory of BM, these scaling and inverse projection functions may absorb no less than two fundamental physical constants.

Space-Time Calibration. The present working hypothesis is that some physical constants pertain to the scaling or calibration between space-time as reckoned in experiment and in BM. The BM length unit d and time unit for a single tick t may be expressed as functions

d = flength(d'); t = ftime(t') [Eqs. 1]

with d and d' in meters, t and t' in seconds, where d' and t' are experimental measurements and d and t are multiples of BM length d and time t units respectively.

Friday, May 27, 2011

Quantized Electromagnetism

The quantization of space and time in binary mechanics (BM) [1] may explain mechanisms underlying laws of electromagnetism (EM) [2] and raise new issues. A key criterion for a physics theory explaining phenomena at a more microscopic level such as BM, is that its laws converge on well-established physics laws at more macroscopic levels. For example, quantum electrodynamics reduce to Maxwell's equations at more macroscopic levels; Special Relativity (SR) reduces to Newtonian mechanics at low observer frame velocities compared to the speed of light in vacuum. To what extent is this true for the postulates and laws of BM? Does BM raise new issues or imply predictions of new EM phenomena?

Fig. 1: Surface View of Two Adjacent Spot Cubes

Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; white) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; g, green; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Dark Matter and Energy

[Updated Oct 6, 2014]
Binary mechanics (BM) [1] provides a rather simple explanation of dark matter and energy. Let us focus on two components of the definition of dark matter in astrophysics, namely matter which (1) has gravitational effects and (2) does not emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation, which suggests the "dark" descriptor for this matter.

The electron spot may serve to present the underlying mechanisms of dark matter.

Fig. 1: Electron Spot XYZ Parity = 111

Friday, May 20, 2011


Baryogenesis is explained in exact detail by binary mechanics (BM) [1] which shows that the half-life of undisturbed (ground state) electrons and protons is infinite in agreement with reported experimental results. The present data presents the creation of protons at energy densities above their particle threshold and their stability as temperature drops to absolute zero Kelvin.

Methods and Results
BM simulation software [2] -- HotSpot 1.28 -- was run in default mode. Fig. 1 plots EdR in the output .csv file, an index highly correlated with proton count, over 300 simulator Ticks.

Fig. 1: Proton Counts vs Simulator Ticks

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Physics Glossary

The theory of binary mechanics (BM) [1] quantizes space and time. As a result, many familiar physics principles and phenomena are explained at a new level of detail and redefined to some extent. Hence, a physics glossary may be a useful guide.

As a physical theory, or more specifically a theory of everything or grand unification, BM has no known competition by the key criterion of simplicity or parsimony [2]. The universe is proposed to consist of a single fundamental object called the spot unit which consists of two binary bits -- mite and lite. The spot unit must contain mechanisms including to set its bit states to one or zero according to the fundamental bit operations of BM and to attach to other spot units to form spots (3 spot units) and spot cubes (8 spots), which in turn form a cubic spatial lattice [3].

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Bit Operations Order

Bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] determine the time-development of BM states. The four operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S, electrostatic), vector (V, magnetic) [2] and strong (F) [3], are thought to occur in separate time intervals (BM ticks) and therefore are applied sequentially. The bit operations do not commute, since the results of any operation can affect results of the others. Hence, only one bit operations order can be a correct representation of all physical phenomena. This report examines some key results as a function of permutations of bit operation order and inertia in the strong force.

Table 1: Effects of Bit Operation Order and Inertia

Legend: Electrons (e-L), positrons (e+R), protons (EdR) and antiprotons (EdL). For mean and std. error, n = 12 (yellow and blue) and n=6 (green)

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Ideal Gas Law: Limited Density Range

A major result of binary mechanics (BM) [1] is the limited energy density range over which some basic thermodynamic laws apply. This report examines this result presenting BM simulator data pertaining to the BM prediction of absolute maximum pressure [2]. Previous reports found absolute maximum temperature at energy densities far below their absolute maximum [3] [4]. It follows that the energy density range over which the ideal gas law is applicable is limited. Specifically, the ideal gas constant R is far from constant over the full energy density range from zero to maximum. Over a significant portion of this range, work in nuclear physics has quantified this variation in the gas constant with different GAMMA values.

Methods and Results
Fig. 1 plots pressure as a function of energy (bit) density where 0 and 1 represent zero pressure and energy density and one represents maximum possible values.

Fig. 1: Pressure (y-axis) vs Energy Density (x-axis)

Friday, April 15, 2011

Electron Acceleration and Quantized Velocity

This paper analyzes and discusses electron motion between electron spots in adjacent spot cubes based on a physical interpretation of binary mechanical (BM) space [1] [2]. Quantization of electron velocity is predicted. Fig. 1 shows the X1 level of the YZ surface of two adjacent spot cubes (left and right) as might be seen from above the YZ plane of the page.

Fig. 1: X1 Plane of YZ Surface of Two Adjacent Spot Cubes
Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; yellow) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; w, white; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars) may be in the 0-state (white) or 1-state (black). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.

Sunday, April 10, 2011

Gravity Looses Primary Force Status

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] depreciates gravity from a primary force with the working hypothesis that observed gravity effects are the result of the four fundamental bit operations -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong. This article presents observations supporting this hypothesis.

It was found that acceleration of two bodies toward each other depended on a higher bit density between the two bodies than in other directions around the bodies. Further, attraction of two bodies conventionally described as gravity required a minimum bit density in the space between the bodies.

Discussion of these results suggests that space-time curvature, such as postulated in the General Theory of Relativity by Einstein is not required to explain gravity or other related observations, and indeed, probably does not even exist in the absence of data requiring it.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Vacuum Thresholds

Updated: April 22, 2011
An absolute vacuum in binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a volume with all bits in the zero state, whereas the conventionally defined perfect vacuum only requires the absence of particles such as ions or atoms. A recent report simulated the 84 tick central baryon bit cycle by introducing a single bit in the one state in an absolute vacuum [2]. Thus, the existence of elementary particles thought to consist of two or more bits in each of one or more spots [3] (e.g., the one-spot electron [4]) in an otherwise near absolute vacuum is consistent with the basic laws of BM.

The present study added bits to the vacuum in perturbation steps. Results suggest key thresholds for physical processes, such as absorption, emission, lepton formation and baryon formation. A step toward calibration of BM absolute maximum temperature in degrees Kelvin is discussed.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Emission Power and Wavelength vs Temperature

Temperature-dependence of power and wavelength of bit emission from a simulated cube of binary mechanical (BM) [1] space is presented in this exploratory, pilot study. Results suggest (1) at least five bit density ranges from zero to maximum bit density showing markedly different slopes of emission power versus temperature and (2) at least four different bit density ranges defined by wavelength at which peak power is observed. These striking quantitative differences among bit density ranges may correspond to qualitatively distinct states such as solid, liquid, gas, plasma and perhaps more.

Strong Operation Disabled by Inertia

Updated: Oct 26, 2014
In binary mechanics (BM) [1], unconditional, scalar, vector and strong bit operations determine the exact time development of the bit distribution (e.g., Eq. 1 in [2]). Unconditional, scalar and vector operations each define bit motion within one of three spatial dimensions. In contrast to these intra-dimensional operations, the inter-dimensional strong operation defines bit motion between spatial dimensions. This note discusses the strong bit operation and how it may be modified by a BM quantity called inertia.

Fig. 1: Strong Bit Operation

Legend: blue, bit in zero state; black, bit in one state.

Friday, March 25, 2011

Superconductivity in Binary Mechanics

A possible binary mechanical (BM) [1] basis for superconductivity at low temperatures is presented.

The present data was obtained from the output .csv file of the BM simulator, using procedures described previously for a 48x48x48 spot cube simulation [2] [3]. Per a kinetic motion concept, temperature was operationally defined as the sum of bit motion per Tick due to either scalar (S) or vector (V) potentials. The proportion of bits in electron spots was the ratio of the bits in electron spots (e-L column in output file) to the total bits (Total column).

Fig. 1: Proportion of bits in electron spots vs temperature

Absolute Maximum Temperature

Updated: April 19, 2011
Binary mechanics (BM)[1] predicted an absolute maximum temperature which would be found below maximum energy density defined as maximum bit density [2]. A pilot study supported this hypothesis [3]. The present report replicates and polishes these results using a different method. Instead of starting with maximum bit density as in the pilot study, the present report started with a near-zero bit density, slowly adding bits randomly in small perturbation increments in each BM simulator Tick.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Electromagnetic Bit Operations Revised

Updated: Oct 26, 2014
This note summarizes recent revisions in bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] for the electromagnetic (EM) forces. Scalar and vector potentials are defined which may in turn result in bit motion.

Fig. 1: Scalar Force in Concurrent Spot Units

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Maximum Temperature Below Half Maximum Bit Density

Updated: April 19, 2011
Binary mechanics (BM) [1] has predicted [2] that increased temperature is correlated with BM bit density over a wide range and a definite physical limitation on how high temperature could rise. In short, maximum possible temperature was predicted. A further speculation was that maximum possible temperature is attained below maximum bit density at which one might imagine that particle motion is less than the maximum possible, per considerations similar to those applicable in classical statistical mechanics. The present pilot study confirms these predictions based on data obtained with BM simulation software [3].

Saturday, March 12, 2011

Captives in a Binary Mechanical Universe

As implications of the assumptions or postulates of binary mechanics (BM)[1] are explored [2] [3] [4], priority tasks include determination of fundamental constants such as the BM distance unit d in meters and time (tick) unit t in seconds, derivation of other fundamental values such as the proton-electron rest mass ratio and generally, experimental verification that BM postulates and bit operations are both consistent with well-known physical observations (e.g., extremely long life-time of protons and electrons) and indeed provide very low level explanations of these phenomena. This article discusses some issues which may be relevant to successful completion of these goals including a number of BM predictions which may make or break BM as a physical theory.

Friday, March 11, 2011

The Central Baryon Bit Cycle

Binary mechanics (BM)[1] simulation software [2] is used to describe the central baryon bit cycle, shown in purple in Fig. 3 of [3]. The right-handed quark spots (drR, dgR and dbR) each have three spot units which define their extent of spatial influence. That is, the location of a bit in these cycles can create or modify scalar, vector or strong potentials, which in turn can modify the respective bit operations at those locations in quantized BM space.

All three right-handed quarks participate in the central baryon bit cycle, which suggests that its complete detail is a good place to start to understand the properties of baryons such as protons and neutrons. The present description is based on a specific interpretation of BM space, which is composed of spot units assembled into spots which further combine in an array of spot cubes [4].

Binary Mechanics Simulator Updated

Updated: May 24, 2011
A new version of the binary mechanics (BM)[1] simulation software -- HotSpot 1.26 -- has been released and is available as a free download here. New features will be summarized, along with comments on data shown in this screen-shot:
Fig. 1: 40x40x40 Default Experiment

Sunday, February 20, 2011

Binary Mechanics Simulation Software

Computer software to simulate the time development of binary mechanics [1] states has produced some encouraging results consistent with well-known physics. The program to be presented was originally written as a console program for 16-bit computers in 1994 and recently ported to HotBasic, which is faster than C language variants (C, C+, C++, etc). Any initial state may be used and its development over time observed. Fig. 1 shows mite and lite bits exploding from an initial state of all bits set for maximum bit density in a sphere with a radius of 8 spots.
Fig. 1: Solid View of "Exploding Sphere"

Saturday, February 19, 2011

Physical Interpretation of Binary Mechanical Space

Updated Jan 26, 2016
Computer simulation of the time development of states (bit patterns) in binary mechanics (BM) [1] requires a physical interpretation of its quantized space. As shown in Fig. 1, let us view a spot unit as two cubes with side length d, a BM fundamental constant, one each for the fermion mite bit (M, circle) and the boson lite bit (L, arrow).

Fig. 1: 2-Bit Spot Unit