by James J Keene PhD

Journal of Binary Mechanics, 21st century physics with quantized space and time

## Sunday, September 25, 2011

### Physics News: Faster Than Light

The physics world has been aroused from a long intellectual slumber by the report from CERN investigators that some muon neutrinos may travel faster than the speed of light [1], possibly violating an essential premise of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Confirmation and hopefully replication of this result would lend support for the long-standing prediction of binary mechanics (BM) [2] that absolute maximum velocity at the single bit level is substantially greater than the observed speed of light (e.g., [3] [4] [5]). Consequences of this BM prediction might result in a number of situations in which apparent faster-than-light motion could be observable.

## Wednesday, September 21, 2011

### Physics News: Electron Shape

**Physics News**will be a new feature of this informal journal of binary mechanics (BM) [1] highlighting research supporting predictions of the theory. This installment considers the BM prediction that the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron is exactly zero. A recent report by Hudson et. al. in

**on "Improved measurement of the shape of the electron" [2] states: "This result, consistent with zero, indicates that the electron is spherical at this improved level of precision." In an email exchange with one of the six co-authors of this paper, I wrote:**

*Nature*In binary mechanics (e.g., "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" ... [3]), which postulates an internal structure for the electron, the constituent bits (called mites) "spin" in a plane orthogonal to the spin axis, where each of three possible equally-spaced mite bit loci is equidistant from the particle's center of mass and symmetrically located around the spin axis.reporting on yoursciencedaily.comletter states (AFAIK, their words, not yours): "If the electrons were not perfectly round then, like an unbalanced spinning-top, their motion would exhibit a distinctive wobble, distorting the overall shape of the molecule. The researchers saw no sign of such a wobble."Nature

## Saturday, September 17, 2011

### A Law of Motion

Several consequences of the postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [1] may be summarized in a basic physics law of motion, namely that

This working hypothesis of a fundamental law of motion in physics is applicable for objects ranging from elementary particles to astronomical objects such as planets and entire galaxies. This note reviews some results and logic supporting this hypothesis.

**objects tend to move in the direction of higher bit density**. Fig. 1 illustrates this idea for one spatial dimension.**Fig. 1: A Law of Motion**

This working hypothesis of a fundamental law of motion in physics is applicable for objects ranging from elementary particles to astronomical objects such as planets and entire galaxies. This note reviews some results and logic supporting this hypothesis.

## Sunday, August 7, 2011

### Gravity Increased By Lunar Surface Temperature Differential

Abstract presented at April 13-16 APS meeting:

Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data [1] grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. These results support the prediction by binary mechanics (BM) [2] that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature [3].

Bulletin of the American Physical Society

**58(4)**186 (2013)**Abstract and Introduction**Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data [1] grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. These results support the prediction by binary mechanics (BM) [2] that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature [3].

**Methods and Results****Fig. 1: Lunar Distance vs Days from Full Moon**

## Monday, June 20, 2011

### Blackbody and Hydrogen Spectrums from Binary Mechanical Postulates?

Possible blackbody and hydrogen spectrums produced by binary mechanical (BM) postulates [1] as evolved over time with simulation software [2] and a new spectrum analysis program are presented. Examples of these spectrums (e.g., Fig. 1) may have implications for (1) length conversion functions between BM and observational spaces [3] [4] (2) correct BM bit operations order for time-development of BM system states [5] and (3) calibration of temperature in degrees Kelvin in terms of average single mite bit motion due to electromagnetic (EM) forces [6] [7].

**Fig. 1: Spectrum of 40x40x40 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 13)**

## Saturday, June 11, 2011

### Solved Physics Mysteries

Updated: June 26, 2011

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a theory of everything based on simple postulates in which the universe is implemented with a single fundamental object called the

An interesting Wikipedia article titled "List of Unsolved Problems in Physics" [2] provides an opportunity to take stock of the development of the theory of BM to date. Hence, this article will follow the general outline of the Wikipedia article with several objectives -- (1) provide hopefully helpful commentary for students of BM, (2) suggest where unsolved problems may be successfully addressed by the theory of BM and its software simulation technology [3], and (3) tabulate as solved those items where BM may have already adequately addressed, in whole or part, particular unsolved problems.

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a theory of everything based on simple postulates in which the universe is implemented with a single fundamental object called the

**spot unit**consisting of two binary bits. Based on position parities in BM space (Table 1 in [1]), these two bits determine, among other things, electric and color charges for leptons and quarks (the**mite**bit) and direction of bit motion (the**lite**bit) according to four fundamental bit operations which define exact time-development of BM states (1-state bit distributions).An interesting Wikipedia article titled "List of Unsolved Problems in Physics" [2] provides an opportunity to take stock of the development of the theory of BM to date. Hence, this article will follow the general outline of the Wikipedia article with several objectives -- (1) provide hopefully helpful commentary for students of BM, (2) suggest where unsolved problems may be successfully addressed by the theory of BM and its software simulation technology [3], and (3) tabulate as solved those items where BM may have already adequately addressed, in whole or part, particular unsolved problems.

Labels:
antimatter,
dark matter,
density,
Dirac,
Einstein,
electron,
General Relativity,
gravity,
Higgs boson,
potential,
predictions,
proton,
quantum mechanics,
quarks,
Special Relativity,
spot unit,
Standard Model,
vacuum

## Friday, May 27, 2011

### Quantized Electromagnetism

The quantization of space and time in binary mechanics (BM) [1] may explain mechanisms underlying laws of electromagnetism (EM) [2] and raise new issues. A key criterion for a physics theory explaining phenomena at a more microscopic level such as BM, is that its laws converge on well-established physics laws at more macroscopic levels. For example, quantum electrodynamics reduce to Maxwell's equations at more macroscopic levels; Special Relativity (SR) reduces to Newtonian mechanics at low observer frame velocities compared to the speed of light in vacuum. To what extent is this true for the postulates and laws of BM? Does BM raise new issues or imply predictions of new EM phenomena?

Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; white) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; g, green; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.

**Fig. 1: Surface View of Two Adjacent Spot Cubes**

Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; white) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; g, green; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.

Labels:
bit operation,
Dirac,
Einstein,
electromagnetic,
forces,
Lorentz force,
potential,
predictions,
quantum mechanics,
quarks,
Special Relativity,
spot unit,
superconductivity,
wavelength

## Saturday, May 21, 2011

### Dark Matter and Energy

[Updated Oct 6, 2014]

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] provides a rather simple explanation of dark matter and energy. Let us focus on two components of the definition of dark matter in astrophysics, namely matter which (1) has gravitational effects and (2) does not emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation, which suggests the "dark" descriptor for this matter.

The electron spot may serve to present the underlying mechanisms of dark matter.

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] provides a rather simple explanation of dark matter and energy. Let us focus on two components of the definition of dark matter in astrophysics, namely matter which (1) has gravitational effects and (2) does not emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation, which suggests the "dark" descriptor for this matter.

The electron spot may serve to present the underlying mechanisms of dark matter.

**Fig. 1: Electron Spot XYZ Parity = 111**

## Friday, May 20, 2011

### Baryogenesis

Baryogenesis is explained in exact detail by binary mechanics (BM) [1] which shows that the half-life of undisturbed (ground state) electrons and protons is infinite in agreement with reported experimental results. The present data presents the creation of protons at energy densities above their particle threshold and their stability as temperature drops to absolute zero Kelvin.

BM simulation software [2] -- HotSpot 1.28 -- was run in default mode. Fig. 1 plots EdR in the output .csv file, an index highly correlated with proton count, over 300 simulator Ticks.

**Methods and Results**BM simulation software [2] -- HotSpot 1.28 -- was run in default mode. Fig. 1 plots EdR in the output .csv file, an index highly correlated with proton count, over 300 simulator Ticks.

**Fig. 1: Proton Counts vs Simulator Ticks**

## Saturday, May 14, 2011

### Physics Glossary

The theory of binary mechanics (BM) [1] quantizes space and time. As a result, many familiar physics principles and phenomena are explained at a new level of detail and redefined to some extent. Hence, a physics glossary may be a useful guide.

As a physical theory, or more specifically a theory of everything or grand unification, BM has no known competition by the key criterion of simplicity or parsimony [2]. The universe is proposed to consist of a single fundamental object called the spot unit which consists of two binary bits -- mite and lite. The spot unit must contain mechanisms including to set its bit states to one or zero according to the fundamental bit operations of BM and to attach to other spot units to form spots (3 spot units) and spot cubes (8 spots), which in turn form a cubic spatial lattice [3].

As a physical theory, or more specifically a theory of everything or grand unification, BM has no known competition by the key criterion of simplicity or parsimony [2]. The universe is proposed to consist of a single fundamental object called the spot unit which consists of two binary bits -- mite and lite. The spot unit must contain mechanisms including to set its bit states to one or zero according to the fundamental bit operations of BM and to attach to other spot units to form spots (3 spot units) and spot cubes (8 spots), which in turn form a cubic spatial lattice [3].

Labels:
bit operation,
Casimir,
commentary,
dark matter,
Einstein,
General Relativity,
grand unification,
gravity,
neutron,
photon,
predictions,
quantum mechanics,
quarks,
spot cube,
spot unit,
Standard Model,
vacuum

## Wednesday, May 11, 2011

### Bit Operations Order

Bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] determine the time-development of BM states. The four operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S, electrostatic), vector (V, magnetic) [2] and strong (F) [3], are thought to occur in separate time intervals (BM ticks) and therefore are applied sequentially. The bit operations do not commute, since the results of any operation can affect results of the others. Hence, only one bit operations order can be a correct representation of all physical phenomena. This report examines some key results as a function of permutations of bit operation order and inertia in the strong force.

Legend: Electrons (e-L), positrons (e+R), protons (EdR) and antiprotons (EdL). For mean and std. error, n = 12 (yellow and blue) and n=6 (green)

**Table 1: Effects of Bit Operation Order and Inertia**

Legend: Electrons (e-L), positrons (e+R), protons (EdR) and antiprotons (EdL). For mean and std. error, n = 12 (yellow and blue) and n=6 (green)

## Thursday, May 5, 2011

### Ideal Gas Law: Limited Density Range

A major result of binary mechanics (BM) [1] is the limited energy density range over which some basic thermodynamic laws apply. This report examines this result presenting BM simulator data pertaining to the BM prediction of

Fig. 1 plots pressure as a function of energy (bit) density where 0 and 1 represent zero pressure and energy density and one represents maximum possible values.

**absolute maximum pressure**[2]. Previous reports found**absolute maximum temperature**at energy densities far below their absolute maximum [3] [4]. It follows that the energy density range over which the ideal gas law is applicable is limited. Specifically, the ideal gas constant R is far from constant over the full energy density range from zero to maximum. Over a significant portion of this range, work in nuclear physics has quantified this variation in the gas constant with different GAMMA values.**Methods and Results**Fig. 1 plots pressure as a function of energy (bit) density where 0 and 1 represent zero pressure and energy density and one represents maximum possible values.

**Fig. 1: Pressure (y-axis) vs Energy Density (x-axis)**

## Friday, April 15, 2011

### Electron Acceleration and Quantized Velocity

This paper analyzes and discusses electron motion between electron spots in adjacent spot cubes based on a physical interpretation of binary mechanical (BM) space [1] [2].

Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; yellow) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; w, white; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars) may be in the 0-state (white) or 1-state (black). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.

**Quantization of electron velocity is predicted**. Fig. 1 shows the X1 level of the YZ surface of two adjacent spot cubes (left and right) as might be seen from above the YZ plane of the page.**Fig. 1: X1 Plane of YZ Surface of Two Adjacent Spot Cubes**

Labels:
antimatter,
baryon,
bit operation,
cycle,
Dirac,
Einstein,
electromagnetic,
electron,
forces,
inertia,
Lorentz force,
matter,
potential,
predictions,
quantum mechanics,
quarks,
Special Relativity,
spot cube,
spot unit

## Sunday, April 10, 2011

### Gravity Looses Primary Force Status

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] depreciates gravity from a primary force with the working hypothesis that observed gravity effects are the result of the four fundamental bit operations -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong. This article presents observations supporting this hypothesis.

It was found that acceleration of two bodies toward each other depended on a higher bit density between the two bodies than in other directions around the bodies. Further, attraction of two bodies conventionally described as gravity required a minimum bit density in the space between the bodies.

Discussion of these results suggests that space-time curvature, such as postulated in the General Theory of Relativity by Einstein is not required to explain gravity or other related observations, and indeed, probably does not even exist in the absence of data requiring it.

It was found that acceleration of two bodies toward each other depended on a higher bit density between the two bodies than in other directions around the bodies. Further, attraction of two bodies conventionally described as gravity required a minimum bit density in the space between the bodies.

Discussion of these results suggests that space-time curvature, such as postulated in the General Theory of Relativity by Einstein is not required to explain gravity or other related observations, and indeed, probably does not even exist in the absence of data requiring it.

Labels:
bit operation,
Casimir,
dark matter,
density,
Einstein,
electromagnetic,
forces,
General Relativity,
grand unification,
gravity,
inertia,
physics,
predictions,
theory of everything,
vacuum

## Wednesday, March 30, 2011

### Vacuum Thresholds

Updated: April 22, 2011

An

The present study added bits to the vacuum in perturbation steps. Results suggest key thresholds for physical processes, such as absorption, emission, lepton formation and baryon formation. A step toward calibration of BM absolute maximum temperature in degrees Kelvin is discussed.

An

**absolute vacuum**in binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a volume with all bits in the zero state, whereas the conventionally defined perfect vacuum only requires the absence of particles such as ions or atoms. A recent report simulated the 84 tick central baryon bit cycle by introducing a single bit in the one state in an absolute vacuum [2]. Thus, the existence of elementary particles thought to consist of two or more bits in each of one or more spots [3] (e.g., the one-spot electron [4]) in an otherwise near absolute vacuum is consistent with the basic laws of BM.The present study added bits to the vacuum in perturbation steps. Results suggest key thresholds for physical processes, such as absorption, emission, lepton formation and baryon formation. A step toward calibration of BM absolute maximum temperature in degrees Kelvin is discussed.

Labels:
antimatter,
baryon,
binary mechanics,
bit operation,
CERN,
cycle,
dark matter,
density,
electromagnetic,
electron,
kinetic energy,
matter,
physics,
positron,
potential,
proton,
quarks,
simulation,
temperature,
vacuum

## Saturday, March 26, 2011

### Emission Power and Wavelength vs Temperature

Temperature-dependence of power and wavelength of bit emission from a simulated cube of binary mechanical (BM) [1] space is presented in this exploratory, pilot study. Results suggest (1) at least five bit density ranges from zero to maximum bit density showing markedly different slopes of emission power versus temperature and (2) at least four different bit density ranges defined by wavelength at which peak power is observed. These striking quantitative differences among bit density ranges may correspond to qualitatively distinct states such as solid, liquid, gas, plasma and perhaps more.

### Strong Operation Disabled by Inertia

Updated: Oct 26, 2014

In binary mechanics (BM) [1], unconditional, scalar, vector and strong bit operations determine the exact time development of the bit distribution (e.g., Eq. 1 in [2]). Unconditional, scalar and vector operations each define bit motion

Legend: blue, bit in zero state; black, bit in one state.

In binary mechanics (BM) [1], unconditional, scalar, vector and strong bit operations determine the exact time development of the bit distribution (e.g., Eq. 1 in [2]). Unconditional, scalar and vector operations each define bit motion

*within*one of three spatial dimensions. In contrast to these intra-dimensional operations, the inter-dimensional strong operation defines bit motion*between*spatial dimensions. This note discusses the strong bit operation and how it may be modified by a BM quantity called**inertia**.**Fig. 1: Strong Bit Operation**

Legend: blue, bit in zero state; black, bit in one state.

## Friday, March 25, 2011

### Superconductivity in Binary Mechanics

A possible binary mechanical (BM) [1] basis for superconductivity at low temperatures is presented.

The present data was obtained from the output .csv file of the BM simulator, using procedures described previously for a 48x48x48 spot cube simulation [2] [3]. Per a kinetic motion concept, temperature was operationally defined as the sum of bit motion per Tick due to either scalar (S) or vector (V) potentials. The proportion of bits in electron spots was the ratio of the bits in electron spots (e-L column in output file) to the total bits (Total column).

**Methods**The present data was obtained from the output .csv file of the BM simulator, using procedures described previously for a 48x48x48 spot cube simulation [2] [3]. Per a kinetic motion concept, temperature was operationally defined as the sum of bit motion per Tick due to either scalar (S) or vector (V) potentials. The proportion of bits in electron spots was the ratio of the bits in electron spots (e-L column in output file) to the total bits (Total column).

**Results****Fig. 1: Proportion of bits in electron spots vs temperature**

### Absolute Maximum Temperature

Updated: April 19, 2011

Binary mechanics (BM)[1] predicted an absolute maximum temperature which would be found below maximum energy density defined as maximum bit density [2]. A pilot study supported this hypothesis [3]. The present report replicates and polishes these results using a different method. Instead of starting with maximum bit density as in the pilot study, the present report started with a near-zero bit density, slowly adding bits randomly in small perturbation increments in each BM simulator Tick.

Binary mechanics (BM)[1] predicted an absolute maximum temperature which would be found below maximum energy density defined as maximum bit density [2]. A pilot study supported this hypothesis [3]. The present report replicates and polishes these results using a different method. Instead of starting with maximum bit density as in the pilot study, the present report started with a near-zero bit density, slowly adding bits randomly in small perturbation increments in each BM simulator Tick.

## Saturday, March 19, 2011

### Electromagnetic Bit Operations Revised

Updated: Oct 26, 2014

This note summarizes recent revisions in bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] for the electromagnetic (EM) forces. Scalar and vector potentials are defined which may in turn result in bit motion.

This note summarizes recent revisions in bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] for the electromagnetic (EM) forces. Scalar and vector potentials are defined which may in turn result in bit motion.

**Fig. 1: Scalar Force in Concurrent Spot Units**

## Thursday, March 17, 2011

### Maximum Temperature Below Half Maximum Bit Density

Updated: April 19, 2011

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] has predicted [2] that increased temperature is correlated with BM bit density over a wide range and a definite physical limitation on how high temperature could rise. In short,

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] has predicted [2] that increased temperature is correlated with BM bit density over a wide range and a definite physical limitation on how high temperature could rise. In short,

**maximum possible temperature**was predicted. A further speculation was that**maximum possible temperature is attained**at which one might imagine that particle motion is less than the maximum possible, per considerations similar to those applicable in classical statistical mechanics. The present pilot study confirms these predictions based on data obtained with BM simulation software [3].*below*maximum bit density## Saturday, March 12, 2011

### Captives in a Binary Mechanical Universe

As implications of the assumptions or postulates of binary mechanics (BM)[1] are explored [2] [3] [4], priority tasks include

**determination of fundamental constants**such as the BM distance unit*d*in meters and time (tick) unit*t*in seconds,**derivation of other fundamental values**such as the proton-electron rest mass ratio and generally,**experimental verification**that BM postulates and bit operations are both consistent with well-known physical observations (e.g., extremely long life-time of protons and electrons) and indeed provide very low level explanations of these phenomena. This article discusses some issues which may be relevant to successful completion of these goals including a number of BM predictions which may make or break BM as a physical theory.
Labels:
baryon,
bit operation,
commentary,
dark matter,
density,
grand unification,
physics,
predictions,
quantum mechanics,
spot unit,
Standard Model,
temperature,
theory of everything,
thermodynamics,
wavelength

## Friday, March 11, 2011

### The Central Baryon Bit Cycle

[Updated: June 23, 2018]

All three right-handed quarks participate in the central baryon bit cycle, which suggests that its complete detail is a good place to start to understand the properties of baryons such as protons and neutrons. The present description is based on a specific interpretation of BM space, which is composed of spot units assembled into spots which further combine in an array of spot cubes [3].

**Binary mechanics (BM)[1] simulation software [2] was used to describe the central baryon bit cycle, shown in Fig. 3A of [1]**. The right-handed quark spots (drR, dgR and dbR) each have three spot units which define their extent of spatial influence. That is, the location of a bit in these cycles can create or modify scalar, vector or strong potentials, which in turn can modify the respective bit operations at those locations in quantized BM space.All three right-handed quarks participate in the central baryon bit cycle, which suggests that its complete detail is a good place to start to understand the properties of baryons such as protons and neutrons. The present description is based on a specific interpretation of BM space, which is composed of spot units assembled into spots which further combine in an array of spot cubes [3].

### Binary Mechanics Simulator Updated

## Sunday, February 20, 2011

### Binary Mechanics Simulation Software

Computer software to simulate the time development of binary mechanics [1] states has produced some encouraging results consistent with well-known physics. The program to be presented was originally written as a console program for 16-bit computers in 1994 and recently ported to HotBasic, which is faster than C language variants (C, C+, C++, etc). Any initial state may be used and its development over time observed. Fig. 1 shows mite and lite bits exploding from an initial state of all bits set for maximum bit density in a sphere with a radius of 8 spots.

**Fig. 1: Solid View of "Exploding Sphere"**

## Saturday, February 19, 2011

### Physical Interpretation of Binary Mechanical Space

Updated Jan 26, 2016

Computer simulation of the time development of states (bit patterns) in binary mechanics (BM) [1] requires a physical interpretation of its quantized space. As shown in Fig. 1, let us view a

Computer simulation of the time development of states (bit patterns) in binary mechanics (BM) [1] requires a physical interpretation of its quantized space. As shown in Fig. 1, let us view a

**spot unit**as two cubes with side length d, a BM fundamental constant, one each for the fermion**mite**bit (M, circle) and the boson**lite**bit (L, arrow).**Fig. 1: 2-Bit Spot Unit**

Labels:
antimatter,
binary mechanics,
dark matter,
electric dipole moment,
electron,
matter,
physics,
positron,
potential,
predictions,
quantum mechanics,
quarks,
simulation,
spot cube,
spot unit,
theory of everything

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