Friday, May 20, 2011


Baryogenesis is explained in exact detail by binary mechanics (BM) [1] which shows that the half-life of undisturbed (ground state) electrons and protons is infinite in agreement with reported experimental results. The present data presents the creation of protons at energy densities above their particle threshold and their stability as temperature drops to absolute zero Kelvin.

Methods and Results
BM simulation software [2] -- HotSpot 1.28 -- was run in default mode. Fig. 1 plots EdR in the output .csv file, an index highly correlated with proton count, over 300 simulator Ticks.

Fig. 1: Proton Counts vs Simulator Ticks

With the default parameters, bit operations are applied in the USVF order [3] and BOX mode is off allowing escape of bits from the simulated space. At Tick 0, bit density was 0.258, expressed as proportion absolute maximum bit (energy) density, below the antiproton threshold [3] [4]. As bits exited the simulated volume, bit density decreased to 0.213 at Tick 290 where absolute zero temperature occurred -- ((S+V)/Mites)^2 in .csv output file [5].

By about Tick 80, temperature fell by 1000x and yet baryogenesis had not yet completed (reached maximum EdR counts). By Tick 150, temperature decreased by another 30x factor and a relatively stable level of EdR counts was seen.

The major wavelength of the highest amplitude oscillation of EdR counts during Ticks 150 to 300 was exactly 7 simulator Ticks (28 BM ticks).

Fig. 2: Positron Counts vs Simulator Ticks

During the entire period shown in Fig. 1, bit density is about 3 times greater than the positron particle threshold [3] [4]. Nonetheless, positron counts (e+R in output .csv file) decreased (Fig. 2) as protons were formed in the first 150 Ticks (Fig. 1).

Fig. 3: Proton Counts with BOX mode ON for Ticks 1 - 150

With BOX mode ON, bits exiting the simulated volume are reinjected to simulate a perfectly reflective wall and hence, bit density remains fairly constant. With BOX mode OFF, bit density is falling (Fig. 1). Fig. 3 shows that the higher average bit density with BOX mode ON caused (1) the rate of baryogensis to increase and (2) higher peak EdR (proton) counts, as might be expected from previous results [4].

With BOX mode turned OFF at Tick 150, the proton counts dropped as temperature decreased during Ticks 151 - 300 (Fig. 2), but remained at a higher level than seen with BOX mode OFF in the entire period (Fig. 1).

Whether bit density and temperature is held fairly constant (BOX mode ON, Fig. 3) or allowed to decrease (BOX mode OFF, Fig. 1), proton counts attained a constant average level, consistent with experimental findings of extremely long, if not infinite, proton half-life.

The time (Tick count) in which bits reorganize themselves due to the fundamental bit operations of BM from the semi-random initial state in the present data, is probably not of general significance. For one thing, it is not certain what physical situation is represented by the initial random bit pattern. In any case, the ability of BM bit operations to rather quickly organize the bits into a stable set of elementary particles which are maintained as temperature drops to absolute zero is impressive.

The oscillations seen in proton counts were exactly 28 ticks where temperature, and hence, disturbing influences of electromagnetic (EM) forces (heat), were allowed to decrease toward absolute zero Kelvin (Fig. 1). 28 ticks is exactly 1/3 of the central baryon bit cycle during which bits exit from, and then return to, the proton's spot cube 3 times [6]. The present operational definition of a proton was the EdR count, based on the criterion of at least two 1-state mite bits per each of three right-handed, matter quark spots in a spot cube. Hence, these counts would be expected to decrease as bits exited a spot cube 3 times per the central baryon bit cycle and increase again as they reentered the particular spot cube. In sum, the count oscillations do not necessarily represent destruction and recreation of protons per se, but rather a property of the proton count procedure in the simulation software.

The role of the positron in baryogenesis is further clarified by the present results. In BM, the positron is thought to be an essential ingredient in protons (Table 3 in [1]). Perhaps further emphasizing the positron role in protons and nuclear physics, the three bit cycles which originate from positron spots participate in central baryon bit cycles (for nucleons) in three adjacent a spot cubes [6].

In short, an integral role for the so-called antimatter positron in ordinary matter protons seems well established. A new result in the present report, comparing Figs. 1 and 2, is that positrons may be absorbed into protons, as positron counts decreased while proton counts increased.

The mechanism for this positron-proton effect involves particular synchronization of bit cycling which may be considered as most stable. In view of the facts cited above, positron counts may decrease when the bit cycling does not favor meeting the count criterion of two 1-state mites in a spot cube's positron spot. Hence, bits may still travel through positron spots, but below their particle threshold. Apparently, this effect favors a more stable pattern of bits in up to three neighboring central baryon cycles, one for each spot unit in a positron spot.

Stability (or ground state energy level) may be defined in several ways. Probably the most important is lack of inertia [7]. For bit counts to reach the proton criterion, the strong force must not be disabled else bits will leave their present bit cycle. Hence, the presence of inertia is one factor with can cause bits to exit a cycle. An important destination of these exiting bits is neighboring spot cubes which leads to a systematic and easily detailed process where an excited nucleon emits energy (bits) which favor forming neighboring nucleons for higher Z atoms or ions.

Another factor is number of bits in the cycles. As one example, the central baryon bit cycle contains 42 distinct positions which may contain a 1-state bit and thus, may contain up to 42 1-state bits. However, in just one bit operations cycle (4 ticks), this highly excited and unstable state would emit 21 units of energy (bits) since the strong force would evaluate to zero in all cases. This is equivalent to saying that scattering required for bit cycling is disabled.

A third factor is the spacing among 1-state bits in a bit cycle (baryon or lepton). Two sequential bits results in a tick where inertia will be one and hence, the strong force disabled and a bit of energy will be emitted from the bit cycle.

Applying the foregoing considerations to the electron bit cycle -- a simpler case involving only one spot [8], one can deduce that a maximum of three non-sequential 1-state bits are a stable ground state. Non-sequential means that all three are mites or as the unconditional and strong bit operations alternate, all three are lites. If this condition is met, the electron will never have two sequential 1-state bits, and hence, inertia will always evaluate to zero, and the strong force is always one in alternate operator applications.

Thus, for the electron, it follows that any 1-state bit absorbed by (entering) such a three-bit stable electron spot, will cause immediately (in the next operator cycle) a 1-state bit to be emitted (exit the electron cycle). Similar considerations, with a more complex set of possible permutations, apply to the baryon bit cycles.

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics simulator updated" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Bit operations order" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Absolute maximum temperature" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[6] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[8] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
© 2011 James J Keene