From first principles of binary mechanics (BM) [1], eight and only eight fundamental or elementary particles were derived, each occupying a spatial object named a **spot** in a **spot cube** defined from a projection of spinor components of a pair of relativistic Dirac equations of opposite handedness to the eight vertexes of a cube quantizing space [2]. Each vertex or spot was postulated to consist of three perpendicular **spot units** defined from the two real components of the quantum mechanics (QM) complex wave function, further restricted to 0 or 1 allowed values, quantizing energy. Properties of the eight fundamental particles were then derived from the modulo 2 parities of the integer {x, y, z} spot coordinates in the spatial lattice, including charge, color, matter vs antimatter status, unconditional bit motion direction, handedness (left or right helicity), etc (Table 1 in [1],). These properties were used to show how most Standard Model (SM) lepton and quark particles may be compositions of the eight BM elementary particles [3]. This article adds information on some mesons and baryons, further illustrating their composition from BM particles and how the "three generations of matter" arise naturally from this analysis.

**Table 1: Generation 1: Some TWO-d Mesons**

Legend: Generation by number of d quarks (TWO-d). r, red; g, green; b, blue. /, antiparticle. X*, spot units in neighboring spot cubes.

Most physicists currently list several variations of "weak forces" as primary, fundamental forces of nature. In binary mechanics (BM), time-development of any system state is exactly determined by four **bit operations** -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong -- based on a pair of relativistic Dirac spinor equations of opposite handedness [1]. Table 1 maps supposed primary forces in legacy physics to these underlying mechanisms of time-evolution (based on Table 4 in [1]). The traditional weak force category maps to the unconditional bit operation. However, the unconditional bit operator is based on the momentum operator in the Dirac equation and is further differentiated from the BM primary forces by their mathematical definitions (Table 2) [2]. As a result, BM proposed that **particle interactions that had suggested new "weak forces" could be accounted for by the unconditional bit operation, and therefore weak interactions do not represent a primary force of nature**. This paper examines some weak interactions to illustrate that their basis is the unconditional bit operation.

**Table 1: Bit Operations Basis of Legacy Primary Forces**

**Abstract and Introduction**

Binary mechanics (BM) defined 8 elementary particles based only on three binary digits, namely modulo 2 parity (0 or 1) of each position coordinate in 3 quantized spatial dimensions (Table 1 in [1]). These parities defined 8 adjacent location types, named **spots** [2], based on a pair of relativistic Dirac spinor equations of opposite handedness. Each spot was associated with one of these 8 elementary particles (Tables 1 to 3; Table 3 updated in [1]). A spot was composed of 3 smaller spatial objects, named **spot units**. In 2014, the 8 BM fundamental particles were found to be not as elementary as previously thought, but rather were themselves composed of only 4 types of spot units [3]. This article itemizes how 62 Standard Model (SM) "elementary" quarks and leptons may be built from the 8 original BM particles. In sum, **62 Standard Model quark and lepton particles may be entirely composed of only 4 types of spot unit**, the most elemental objects known in physics [3].

**Methods and Results**

**Table 1: Generation 1: Zero-d Leptons and ONE-d Quarks**

Legend: L, left; R, right. r, red; g, green; b; blue. Neutrinos and anti-neutrinos by Majorana concept.

Fun pop quiz. Spot the physics theory hidden in Tables 1 to 3.

**Table 1: Physics Theory: Some First Principles**

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] predicts that **faster-than-light motion of 1-state bits occurs over specific distances under particular conditions** defined by four time-development bit operations [2] -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F) [3] [4].

1-State Fermion Mite Bit Velocities

*Distance d = 1.* Bit velocity v = d/t where d and t are the fundamental quantized length and time constants [5]. Distance d is presently thought to be approximately 0.6 fm. Time interval t was calculated based on the speculation that so-called "light speed in vacuum" c = v/π (eq. 2 in [5]), approximately 6.34922E-25 seconds in the BM frame. In one time tick t of the unconditional bit operation, all 1-state bits (fermion mites and boson lites) and 0-state bits (1-bit neutrinos) move exactly one distance unit d at bit velocity v. With four bit operations each thought to have duration t, the average unconditional bit velocity over one cycle of bit operations application is v/4. It may be convenient to express these velocities in bit velocity units where light speed is 1/π and **average velocity over 4 ticks t due to the unconditional bit operation is 1/4, less than purported light speed**.

**Fig. 1: Faster-Than-Light 1-State Fermion Mite Bit Motion**

Legend: States of spatial objects named spot units over successive ticks (top to bottom). Each spot unit contains two bit loci named mite (circles) and lite (arrows) with 0 (blue) or 1 (black) allowed states. The last row adds view of a bit locus in an adjacent perpendicular spot unit. Strong bit operation direction (purple arrow).

**Abstract and Introduction**

The Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) v1.38.1 [1] records position of particles in proton bit cycles and in electron bit cycles [2] as centers of mass (1-state bits) {r1, r2, r3} and {e1, e2, e3} respectively for each BMLS Tick. Hence, motion of particles in the proton cycle (perhaps mostly protons) and in the electron cycle (electrons) may be studied under various experimental conditions, such as applied electrostatic and magnetic fields, variations in temperature and pressure, etc. For example, zero motion was reported for both particle categories at zero degrees Kelvin [3]. This note presents some motion data and readily observable phenomena. Call it "particles in a box", for those who recall their first lessons in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Most BMLS run time is occupied with generating the screen display, while its bit operations engine uses a small fraction of run time. Thus, BMLS v1.38.1 adds a parameter called "AllTicks". When toggled Off, display and output records to the *.cvs file are done only once per proton bit cycle (21 BMLS Ticks). AllTicks Off is convenient for studies over larger time intervals.

**Methods and Results**

**Fig. 1: Motion of Proton and Electron Cycle Bits: XY Plane, All Ticks**

Legend: Center of mass (1-state bits) motion for proton bit cycle (left) and electron bit cycle (right). 20000 BMLS Ticks. 32x32x32 spot volume. Initial Density 0.24

**Abstract and Introduction**

Light velocity at zero degrees Kelvin was examined. Major results of previous reports were replicated [1] [2]. First, light speed was zero at low vacuum energy (1-state bit) densities. That is, the hypothesis that the lowest vacuum densities are opaque to light transmission [3] was confirmed with improved measurement methods. Second, light speed decreased from its maximum velocity as energy density decreased. Third, light velocity was approximately equal to 1/π in bit velocity units [4], where bit velocity is d/t and d and t are the quantized fundamental length and time constants respectively. These results (1) change the status of Einstein's Special Relativity statement of constant light speed c in a vacuum independent of signal source velocity from postulate to known mechanism and (2) limit the vacuum density range in which light speed c may, in fact, be constant [1] and (3) highlight issues in light speed measurement methods.

**Methods and Results**

**Fig. 1: Light Speed at Zero Kelvin vs Energy Density**

Legend: Bit density: energy (1-state bit) density as proportion of maximum possible energy density. Light speed expressed in bit velocity units.

**Abstract and Introduction**

Cooling a simulated system to zero degrees Kelvin [1] is examined in this exploratory pilot study. The zero Kelvin systems produced can be saved and used in other studies as initial states without any electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle motion. Methods to produce these zero Kelvin states and some results on their properties are presented and discussed.

**Methods, Results and Discussion**

**Fig. 1: Final Densities at Zero Kelvin**

Legend: VSUF (blue), SVUF (pink) bit operations order -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F).