Friday, March 11, 2011

The Central Baryon Bit Cycle

Binary mechanics (BM)[1] simulation software [2] is used to describe the central baryon bit cycle, shown in purple in Fig. 3 of [3]. The right-handed quark spots (drR, dgR and dbR) each have three spot units which define their extent of spatial influence. That is, the location of a bit in these cycles can create or modify scalar, vector or strong potentials, which in turn can modify the respective bit operations at those locations in quantized BM space.

All three right-handed quarks participate in the central baryon bit cycle, which suggests that its complete detail is a good place to start to understand the properties of baryons such as protons and neutrons. The present description is based on a specific interpretation of BM space, which is composed of spot units assembled into spots which further combine in an array of spot cubes [4].

Methods
HotSpot 1.10 -- the BM simulator program -- was used to itemize the travels of a single test bit in the central baryon bit cycle. With only a single bit in the simulated space, there is no possibility of interference from any other bits creating or modifying scalar, vector or strong potentials. Indeed, scalar and vector potentials require juxtaposed bits in concurrent and counter-current locations respectively and therefore cannot affect our results. Further, a strong potential occurs only when another bit does not already occupy the site to which our test bit would scatter via an inter-dimensional bit operation. If only one test bit exists in the simulated space, the strong potential is always operative (equal to one).

In sum, in this experiment, only two bit operations were possible -- unconditional bit motion and inter-dimensional bit motion due to the strong potential.

Table 1 was obtained from the HotSpot output file using the 011glu1.mat initialization file, which is included in the "ini" sub-directory, so the reader may run the program and perhaps better visualize the results. The 101glu1.mat input file shows the same bit cycle from a different starting point. Regarding the file naming convention, the first three characters are the spot IJK parities with the rest indicating one gluon bit.

Results
Table 1 lists the central baryon bit cycle in terms of HotSpot Ticks, which each consist of four BM ticks, one each for the unconditional, scalar, vector and strong bit operations. Tick 0 is the initial state defined in the input file to which we return in Tick 21. Hence, Ticks 1 to 21 define the steps in the cycle.

Table 1: Central Baryon Bit Cycle in HotSpot Ticks
Tick Type Q Spot r1 r2 r3 p1 p2 p3
0 Glu 0 drR 32 34 34 -1 -1 0
1 Qua 1 dgL 32 35 33 0 1 -1
2 Glu 0 dgL 33 35 32 1 0 -1
3 Pho 0 e+R* 33 36 33 0 1 1
4 Glu 0 drL* 34 36 32 1 0 -1
5 Qua -1 dbR 34 35 33 0 -1 1
6 Qua 1 dbR 35 34 33 1 -1 0
7 Glu 0 dbR 34 34 32 -1 0 -1
8 Qua 1 drL 35 33 32 1 -1 0
9 Glu 0 drL 35 32 33 0 -1 1
10 Pho 0 e+R* 36 33 33 1 1 0
11 Glu 0 dbL* 36 32 34 0 -1 1
12 Qua -1 dgR 35 33 34 -1 1 0
13 Qua 1 dgR 34 33 35 -1 0 1
14 Glu 0 dgR 34 32 34 0 -1 -1
15 Qua 1 dbL 33 32 35 -1 0 1
16 Glu 0 dbL 32 33 35 -1 1 0
17 Pho 0 e+R* 33 33 36 1 0 1
18 Glu 0 dgL* 32 34 36 -1 1 0
19 Qua -1 drR 33 34 35 1 0 -1
20 Qua 1 drR 33 35 34 0 1 -1
21 Glu 0 drR 32 34 34 -1 -1 0
LEGEND: Qua, quark mite; Glu, gluonic lite; Pho, photonic lite; Q, sign of mite charge; Spot, d quark (d) with r, g or b color and right (R) or left (L) handedness; position, r1, r2, r3 in BM distance units; momentum, p1, p2, p3

The central baryon bit cycle consists of 21 simulator Ticks, or a total of 84 BM ticks, if each of the four possible bit operations each transpire in one tick.

The momentum components (p1, p2, p3) indicate the change in position (r1, r2, r3) of the test bit in each simulator Tick, where the two non-zero components represent the bit motion from unconditional and strong operations, which were the only ones possible in this experiment. The momentum components are presented for clarity, since they are redundant with the position data, merely showing the change in the respective components (r1, r2, r3).

In this data, IJK spot parity may be obtained where positions 32, 33 and 36 are even parity (zero) and positions 34 and 35 are odd parity (one). For example, at Tick 1 with position 32, 35, 33, the IJK parity is 010 which defines the dgL spot.

The spots marked with * are outside the spot cube in one of three different adjacent spot cubes (Ticks 3 and 4; Ticks 10 and 11; Ticks 17 and 18). These consist of only the positron (e+R) spot and left-handed quark spots (drL, dbL, dgL).

A modified version of HotSpot was used to display the exact sequence of bit motion in the central baryon bit cycle (Table 2).

Table 2: Central Baryon Bit Cycle in HotSpot Ticks
Tick Type Q Spot r1 r2 r3 p1 p2 p3
0 Glu 0 drR 32 34 34 0 0 0
1u Qua 1 dgL 32 34 33 0 0 -1
1s Qua 1 dgL 32 35 33 0 1 0
2u Glu 0 dgL 33 35 33 1 0 0
2s Glu 0 dgL 33 35 32 0 0 -1
3u Lep 1 e+R* 33 36 32 0 1 0
3s Pho 0 e+R* 33 36 33 0 0 1
4u Qua -1 drL* 34 36 33 1 0 0
4s Glu 0 drL* 34 36 32 0 0 -1
5u Qua -1 dbR 34 35 32 0 -1 0
5s Qua -1 dbR 34 35 33 0 0 1
6u Glu 0 dbR 35 35 33 1 0 0
6s Qua 1 dbR 35 34 33 0 -1 0
7u Glu 0 dbR 35 34 32 0 0 -1
7s Glu 0 dbR 34 34 32 -1 0 0
8u Qua 1 drL 34 33 32 0 -1 0
8s Qua 1 drL 35 33 32 1 0 0
9u Glu 0 drL 35 33 33 0 0 1
9s Glu 0 drL 35 32 33 0 -1 0
10u Lep 1 e+R* 36 32 33 1 0 0
10s Pho 0 e+R* 36 33 33 0 1 0
11u Qua -1 dbL* 36 33 34 0 0 1
11s Glu 0 dbL* 36 32 34 0 -1 0
12u Qua -1 dgR 35 32 34 -1 0 0
12s Qua -1 dgR 35 33 34 0 1 0
13u Glu 0 dgR 35 33 35 0 0 1
13s Qua 1 dgR 34 33 35 -1 0 0
14u Glu 0 dgR 34 32 35 0 -1 0
14s Glu 0 dgR 34 32 34 0 0 -1
15u Qua 1 dbL 33 32 34 -1 0 0
15s Qua 1 dbL 33 32 35 0 0 1
16u Glu 0 dbL 33 33 35 0 1 0
16s Glu 0 dbL 32 33 35 -1 0 0
17u Lep 1 e+R* 32 33 36 0 0 1
17s Pho 0 e+R* 33 33 36 1 0 0
18u Qua -1 dgL* 33 34 36 0 1 0
18s Glu 0 dgL* 32 34 36 -1 0 0
19u Qua -1 drR 32 34 35 0 0 -1
19s Qua -1 drR 33 34 35 1 0 0
20u Glu 0 drR 33 35 35 0 1 0
20s Qua 1 drR 33 35 34 0 0 -1
21u Glu 0 drR 32 35 34 -1 0 0
21s Glu 0 drR 32 34 34 0 -1 0
LEGEND: same as Table 1 adding Lep, lepton mite.

In Table 2, each line is an interval (Ticks 1 to 21) showing a single bit motion over one unit of BM distance due to an unconditional (u) or strong (s) operation.

Within the spot cube (no *), the right-handed quarks (R) have equal color representation, each color with six intervals. Similarly, the left-handed quarks (L) have equal color representation, but only four intervals each. That is, the test bit spends 50 percent more time in R quarks (matter) than in L quarks (antimatter).

For 12 (*) of the 42 intervals from Tick 1 to 21, the test bit spends equal time in one of three adjacent spot cubes.

The sum of the charge sign column (Q) is 3, in nominal agreement with a positively charged proton.

Discussion
The present simulation assumes a particular physical interpretation of BM space [4] and has revealed a 84 BM tick central baryon bit cycle. Half of these 84 ticks is assigned to scalar and vector bit operations, which were factored out in this experiment by using a single test bit in the simulated space, thereby eliminating the possibility of scalar or vector potentials. Hence, it might be imagined that our test bit was motionless for one half of the time (not shown in Table 2).

Most of the reported bit cycle occured within one central spot cube, where the test bit was located in right-handed (R, matter) quark spots for 50 percent more time than in left-handed (L, antimatter) quark spots. This finding is directionally consistent with observed matter versus antimatter asymmetry and may partially provide a simple explanation of this phenomenon, at least concerning quarks. Namely, for the R quarks, the handedness (chirality) requires the test bit to cycle through all six bit locations in their respective spots before exiting to the next L quark in the cycle sequence. On the other hand, the test bit cycles through only four bit locations of the L quarks in the spot cube, before exiting to the next spot in the sequence. For each of the L quark spots within this central spot cube, the next spot is a positron (e+R*) spot in an adjacent spot cube.

The two "unused" bit locations in each of the three L quarks in the central spot cube comprise spot units in which interactions (interference) among spot cubes may be realized. These interactions may play a role in binding nucleons together as well as motion (acceleration) of baryon particles to adjacent spot cubes.

The reported central (or shared) baryon bit cycle does not appear to interact at all with the electron (e-L) or positron (e+R) spots within its own central spot cube.

The six faces of the central spot cube correspond to six adjacent spot cubes. The central baryon bit cycle ventures into only three of these, indicating a spatial asymmetry in its overall shape. Previous work on proton bit loops (cycles) [3] showed that the shape of the proton, as defined by the locations where its bits might create or modify BM potentials, is not spherical. The present description of the central baryon loop further highlights this point.

All of the three spot units in each right-handed quark spot participate in this central baryon loop.

If such precise itemizations of baryon bit loops prove to be correct, it may increase understanding of baryon behavior. For example, a significant result of this study is that the central loop ventures into three neighboring spot cubes, which may lead to better understanding of binding among nucleons. Further, this information is required to itemize the exact conditions required for motion of baryons in BM space (to adjacent spot cubes).

Conventional quantum mechanics can only provide approximations, if not outright distortions, on these important matters, at this nuclear physics level of fineness, since it assumes continuous space and time, while quantizing virtually everything else. Some of these more general issues will be discussed in a future article.

References
[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics simulator updated" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics electron, positron and proton" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
© 2011 James J Keene