Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Matter Creation Sequel

Abstract and Introduction
Matter creation based on electron and proton counts was examined after a simulated volume cooled to zero degrees Kelvin as a function of initial energy density. Findings include (1) lowest matter creation occurred starting from maximum energy density (1.0) and "perfect vacuum" density (0.1), (2) greatest matter creation was produced when starting from 0.3 energy density and (3) the SUVF bit operations order produced the greatest matter creation, compared to the VSUF and SVUF orders.

Studies using the boosted energies of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN may provide only a primitive, keyhole view of possible events in the entire energy density range from absolute vacuum to absolute maximum energy density. Absolute vacuum and absolute maximum energy density are consequences of quantization of space and energy in binary mechanics (BM) [1] aka "full quantum mechanics". Energy was quantized by limiting spatial objects called bit loci to 0-states or 1-states. Then, absolute vacuum could be defined as a volume with all 0-state bit loci [2]. Note that so-called "perfect vacuum" may contain up to about 10% 1-state bit loci and is therefore not "empty space" (e.g., [3]). At the other extreme, absolute maximum energy density is achieved with all bit loci in a volume in the 1-state. The BM system state, named the bit function, is the spatial distribution of 1- and 0-state bits. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in "partial quantum mechanics" (QM) were not applicable mathematically. Thus, four bit operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [1] [4] implementing time-development of the system state. Since results depend on bit operations order, only one order can be physically correct [5].

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Matter Creation

Abstract and Introduction
Identified matter-antimatter asymmetry mechanisms have indicated that predominance of matter over antimatter results from ongoing processes in the present [1], not from events in the distant past in the early universe. With space-time quantization in binary mechanics (BM) [2], quantum mechanics (QM) time-development operators with infinitesimal increments in position or time were no longer applicable mathematically. Hence, four bit operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were defined based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations. Since results depend on bit operations order [3], a major research objective is to determine the one and only physically correct bit operations order. The present research question was: which bit operation orders favor matter creation in present real-time? This study found that VSUF, SVUF and SUVF orders produce matter creation (Figs. 1 and 2) and eliminated the USVF, UVSF and VUSF orders based on this criterion.

Fig. 1: Matter Creation: Electrons

Legend: 1-state bit density: probability a bit locus is in 1-state. Exp: expected based on random distribution of 1-state bits. SUVF, SVUF, VSUF: bit operations order. Red arrows: absolute maximum temperature (maximum S + V counts).

Saturday, May 7, 2016

Quantization Asymmetry

Quantization asymmetry has been defined as physical theories at the atomic and nuclear levels that quantize almost everything except space and time [1]. The continuous space-time assumption in classical and Standard Model (SM) physics and in General Relativity (GR) presently has no known justification other than tradition and superstition. Binary mechanics (BM) [2] may be seen as an instance of quantization asymmetry breaking, so to speak, since it implements quantization symmetry. In 2010, publication of the postulates of BM and some of their consequences began a transition in physics from quantization asymmetry to symmetry. This article outlines some major headlines in this developing story that has impact in virtually all sub-specialities in physics.

Fig. 1: What Death of a Theory Looks Like

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Particle Motion Representation

Abstract and Introduction
Observed properties of all so-called elementary particles arise from just four variations of a spatial object named a spot unit [1] [2] [3], among the smallest building blocks underlying physical phenomena described to date. A spot unit contains two binary bits named mite (M) and lite (L) with 0 or 1 allowed states, each located in a cubic bit locus of dimension d, a fundamental length constant [4], quantizing energy and space respectively (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: Spot Unit

The M bits have an electric charge attribute and are the electrostatic potential field. The first-ever calculations of Planck's constant h and of electron magnetic moment from first principles [4] [5] suggests that a mass attribute of energy is associated with M or mite bits. The L or lite bits are the magnetic potential field. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in quantum mechanics (QM) are not mathematically applicable. Hence, four time-development bit operations were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [6]. One of these, the vector bit operation, accelerates 1-state M bits to L bit loci in a quantized time tick t [7]. Modulo 2 parity of spot unit integer position coordinates determines spot unit direction (eq. 6 in [6]) and hence, motion direction for the scalar, vector and unconditional bit operations. This article presents a demonstration that 1-state L bits represent a motion attribute of energy coding length and direction of 1-state bit position change in subsequent time ticks.