The quantization of space and time in binary mechanics (BM) [1] may explain mechanisms underlying laws of electromagnetism (EM) [2] and raise new issues. A key criterion for a physics theory explaining phenomena at a more microscopic level such as BM, is that its laws converge on well-established physics laws at more macroscopic levels. For example, quantum electrodynamics reduce to Maxwell's equations at more macroscopic levels; Special Relativity (SR) reduces to Newtonian mechanics at low observer frame velocities compared to the speed of light in vacuum. To what extent is this true for the postulates and laws of BM? Does BM raise new issues or imply predictions of new EM phenomena?

**Fig. 1: Surface View of Two Adjacent Spot Cubes**

Legend: Each color-coded spot is a 2x2x2 cube of bits. A spot cube contains 8 spots, 4 of which are partially visible in this view. Electron spots (e-L; white) and right (R) and left (L) d quark (d) spots (r, red; g, green; b, blue). Mites (circles) and lites (arrows and stars). Stars are lites moving toward the viewer. Purple arrows indicate the direction of the three inter-dimensional strong bit operations within a spot, one of which is visible in each spot in this view.
[Updated Oct 6, 2014]

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] provides a rather simple explanation of dark matter and energy. Let us focus on two components of the definition of dark matter in astrophysics, namely matter which (1) has gravitational effects and (2) does not emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation, which suggests the "dark" descriptor for this matter.

The electron spot may serve to present the underlying mechanisms of dark matter.

**Fig. 1: Electron Spot XYZ Parity = 111**

Baryogenesis is explained in exact detail by binary mechanics (BM) [1] which shows that the half-life of undisturbed (ground state) electrons and protons is infinite in agreement with reported experimental results. The present data presents the creation of protons at energy densities above their particle threshold and their stability as temperature drops to absolute zero Kelvin.

**Methods and Results**

BM simulation software [2] -- HotSpot 1.28 -- was run in default mode. Fig. 1 plots EdR in the output .csv file, an index highly correlated with proton count, over 300 simulator Ticks.

**Fig. 1: Proton Counts vs Simulator Ticks**

The theory of binary mechanics (BM) [1] quantizes space and time. As a result, many familiar physics principles and phenomena are explained at a new level of detail and redefined to some extent. Hence, a physics glossary may be a useful guide.

As a physical theory, or more specifically a theory of everything or grand unification, BM has no known competition by the key criterion of simplicity or parsimony [2]. The universe is proposed to consist of a single fundamental object called the spot unit which consists of two binary bits -- mite and lite. The spot unit must contain mechanisms including to set its bit states to one or zero according to the fundamental bit operations of BM and to attach to other spot units to form spots (3 spot units) and spot cubes (8 spots), which in turn form a cubic spatial lattice [3].
Bit operations in binary mechanics (BM) [1] determine the time-development of BM states. The four operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S, electrostatic), vector (V, magnetic) [2] and strong (F) [3], are thought to occur in separate time intervals (BM ticks) and therefore are applied sequentially. The bit operations do not commute, since the results of any operation can affect results of the others. Hence, only one bit operations order can be a correct representation of all physical phenomena. This report examines some key results as a function of permutations of bit operation order and inertia in the strong force.

**Table 1: Effects of Bit Operation Order and Inertia**

Legend: Electrons (e-L), positrons (e+R), protons (EdR) and antiprotons (EdL). For mean and std. error, n = 12 (yellow and blue) and n=6 (green)
A major result of binary mechanics (BM) [1] is the limited energy density range over which some basic thermodynamic laws apply. This report examines this result presenting BM simulator data pertaining to the BM prediction of **absolute maximum pressure** [2]. Previous reports found **absolute maximum temperature** at energy densities far below their absolute maximum [3] [4]. It follows that the energy density range over which the ideal gas law is applicable is limited. Specifically, the ideal gas constant R is far from constant over the full energy density range from zero to maximum. Over a significant portion of this range, work in nuclear physics has quantified this variation in the gas constant with different GAMMA values.

**Methods and Results**

Fig. 1 plots pressure as a function of energy (bit) density where 0 and 1 represent zero pressure and energy density and one represents maximum possible values.

**Fig. 1: Pressure (y-axis) vs Energy Density (x-axis)**