Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Non-Zero Proton Electric Dipole Moment

Proton electric dipole moment (EDM) dp equals 8.534265E-32 ecm, calculated from positions of charged 1-state bits in the central baryon bit cycle [1] model of the proton [2] (Fig. 1), elementary charge e and the estimated fundamental length d [3] based on binary mechanics (BM) postulates [4] and nucleon scattering data [5]. This dp is deemed to be accurate to at least 7 digits based on (1) the CODATA accuracy for elementary charge e, (2) the integer position coordinates are exact, (3) the assumption that the charges are centered on the coordinate grid shown and (4) only one 1-state bit circulating in the central baryon bit cycle. The BM prediction of zero electron EDM has been confirmed by observations conducted by two independent labs deemed to be reliable [6]. The present non-zero proton EDM result is consistent with all experimental measurements to date [7] and is discussed regarding P and T symmetry issues.

Fig. 1: Electric Charge Positions in Central Baryon Bit Cycle

Legend: Centers (0 - 4) of bit loci (approx. 0.6 fm cubes of quantized space) viewed from the XY plane and rotated 90 degrees, the YZ plane, showing charge densities -- positive: red (2), light red and orange (1) and negative: yellow (2), light yellow and orange (1).

Sunday, February 22, 2015

Non-Spherical Proton Shape

Binary mechanics (BM) has predicted a non-spherical proton shape, supported by accumulating experimental data and quantum chromodynamic (QCD) modeling. This paper further documents the non-spherical shape of the proton, highlighting clear advantages of BM over QCD. Based on a pair of relativistic Dirac spinor equations of opposite handedness, quantization of space, time and energy was proposed in a 1994 paper presenting BM [1]. As a result, quantum mechanical (QM) formalism evolved into (1) the bit function replacing the wave function for an irreducible representation of the state of any physical system and (2) four fundamental bit operations replacing infinitesimal operators for system time evolution [2]. With time quantization in discrete tick t units, Planck's constant h for an action quanta could then be parsed to define energy quanta as 1-state binary bits independent of time or frequency considerations. Another consequence of BM postulates was discovery of a cyclical circulation of 1-state bits in a quantized spatial structure named a spot cube (Fig. 3A in [1]). With a physical interpretation of BM space [3] and simulation software [4], this 1-state bit circulation was further described as an 84 tick central baryon bit cycle, detailing the physical basis for quark confinement [5].

Fig. 1: 1-State Bit Density in Central Baryon Bit Cycle
Legend: Centers (0 - 4) of bit loci (approx. 0.6 fm cubes of quantized space) with densities of 1 (light grey), 2 (grey) and 4 (black) 1-state bits viewed from the XY plane and rotated 90 degrees, the YZ plane.

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Intrinsic Electron Magnetic Moment Derivation

[Updated: Apr 12, 2018]
The Bohr magneton μB and hence, the electron intrinic magnetic moment μS, without g-factor or electron rest mass consideration and without anomalous magnetic moment "correction", may be calculated from the fundamental length d and time t constants [1] of binary mechanics (BM) [2]. In this report, μS is computed from d, t, elementary charge e and a classical expression of magnetic dipole moment based on a current around the perimeter of a circular area, marking perhaps the first direct derivation of μS from first principles of a comprehensive physical theory. The more conservative interpretation is that the so-called anomalous magnetic moment represents an experimental artifact with reference to μS measurement.
Fig. 1: Electron Spot Geometry for Magnetic Moment Calculation