Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Vacuum Thresholds

Updated: April 22, 2011
An absolute vacuum in binary mechanics (BM) [1] is a volume with all bits in the zero state, whereas the conventionally defined perfect vacuum only requires the absence of particles such as ions or atoms. A recent report simulated the 84 tick central baryon bit cycle by introducing a single bit in the one state in an absolute vacuum [2]. Thus, the existence of elementary particles thought to consist of two or more bits in each of one or more spots [3] (e.g., the one-spot electron [4]) in an otherwise near absolute vacuum is consistent with the basic laws of BM.

The present study added bits to the vacuum in perturbation steps. Results suggest key thresholds for physical processes, such as absorption, emission, lepton formation and baryon formation. A step toward calibration of BM absolute maximum temperature in degrees Kelvin is discussed.

BM stimulation software (HotSpot 1.26) was used to randomly seed the initial state of a 48x48x48 spot space at an approximately 0.001 bit density, as described previously [5].

Per its kinetic energy basis, temperature was operationally defined as the square of average mite bit velocity due to electromagnetic (EM) potentials: ((S + V)/Mites)2, where S and V (columns in simulator output .csv file) were motion due to scalar (S) and vector (V) potentials and Mites was the current mite count in the simulated space.

The particle threshold in the BM simulator was at least two mites per spot. Thus, the one-spot electron and positron required two or three mites to reach threshold. The R (matter) and L (antimatter) baryons were defined for the present study in a perhaps over-simplified manner with the particle threshold requiring at least two mites in each of three corresponding (R or L) quark spots.

Dependent variables were scaled to zero to one ranges, where one represents a maximum value. For temperature, this maximum was the peak kinetic energy observed. For mites and lites, the scale factor was the maximum of the 24 of each that can occur in one spot cube (8 spots x 3 mites or lites each). For the leptons and baryons, each spot cube can contain one each for matter and antimatter particles.

Results and Discussion

Fig. 1: Temperature, Lites, Mites and Particles vs Bit Density
Fig. 1 shows dependent variables plotted over the range from absolute vacuum to maximum bit density, zero to one respectively.

Absorption, Lite and Mite Thresholds
Absolute vacuum is completely opaque, absorbing incoming energy which enter electron and baryon bit cycles until bit density rises to a point where additional energy entering the volume can conduct further.

Lites and mites injected into the near absolute vacuum are absorbed and their incidence increases approximately linearly up to about 0.125 maximum density, which may coincidentally be a simple fraction, namely 1/8 of the maximum. At this approximate threshold, lites start to outnumber mites up to a peak lite/mite ratio of 1.7 at 0.71 density (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Lite/Mite Ratio vs Bit Density
Gross inspection of Fig 2 reveals six or more density ranges with different the lite/mite ratio slopes (change in ratio per change in density) up the peak at 1.7.

Electron Threshold
The first particles created as the absolute vacuum is "filled" are electrons. Fig. 1 shows that electron counts (e-L) increase exponentially up to about 0.15 maximum density, after which at least four different slopes of electron creation occur up to absolute maximum temperature (0.6 maximum density) extending to absolute maximum bit (energy) density (1.0). Fig. 3 shows electron count detail at the lowest density range, suggesting an electron threshold of about 0.004 maximum density.

Fig. 3: Electrons vs Bit Density

Positron Threshold
As detailed in Fig. 4, the positron (e+R in Fig. 1) threshold was at about 0.035 maximum density, an order of magnitude greater than the electron threshold.

Fig. 4: Positrons vs Bit Density
As with the electron counts as a function of bit density, positron counts increased at several different rates per bit density increment up to maximum bit density. However, electron counts always greatly outnumbered positron counts, which is consistent with, and partially explains, the well-known matter versus antimatter asymmetry.

Baryon Thresholds
Above maximum temperature at 0.6 bit density, baryon counts rise rapidly to their maximum (EdR and EdL in Fig. 1). During this rapid increase in baryon counts, matter (EdR) substantially exceeds antimatter (EdL) particles.

Since these particles comprise much of the mass in the universe, could objects like neutron stars or black holes occupy this density range where, according to this BM simulation, temperature is less than its absolute maximum?

Fig. 5: R and L Baryons vs Bit Density
Fig. 5 details R and L baryon thresholds, plotting baryon counts up to absolute maximum temperature at 0.6 maximum bit density. The matter (R) baryons began to emerge at about 0.110 maximum bit density, with their counts peaking in the 0.34 to 0.40 density range. Meanwhile, antimatter (L) baryons began to appear at about 0.26 density, peaking just below the absolute-maximum-temperature density, where the R baryons also showed a secondary peak. Again, these results are consistent with and further explain the BM basis for the matter versus antimatter asymmetry.

Temperature Thresholds
Two thermal thresholds may be specified. A thermal I threshold is near zero bit density where even very low mite and/or lite bit counts may result in bits in adjacent parallel spot units and thereby create EM forces accelerating mites. This acceleration is the basis for the kinetic energy concept of heat and related temperature measurements. The 0.21 to 0.25 bit density range marks a thermal II threshold where the rate of temperature increase per density increment dramatically increased (Fig 1).

An emission threshold might be expected to correspond to initial departure from absolute zero temperature as bit density rises (Thermal I threshold, Table 1 below). Below the emission threshold, one might say that all input energy (bits) is absorbed by the vacuum to reside in electron or baryon bit cycles before further incoming radiation can further penetrate the volume. That is, the stars would not be visible in the night sky if outer space was an opaque absolute vacuum. This sort of consideration may emphasize the need to better understand vacuum thresholds.

Table 1 summarizes some vacuum thresholds which may have physical significance.

Table 1: Vacuum Thresholds vs Proportion Maximum Density
THRESHOLD      P(max density)
Absorption 0.000 (absolute vacuum)
Lite, Mite 0.000+ (+ denotes "near zero")
Thermal I 0.000+
Electron 0.004
Positron 0.035 (perfect vacuum contains foregoing)
R Baryon 0.110 (partial vacuum starts here)
Lites > Mites 0.125 (lite counts exceed mite counts)
Thermal II 0.210-0.25 (approx.)
L Baryon 0.26
The R Baryon matter threshold would include ions (e.g., protons) and atoms, defining a partial vacuum. However, some authors may deem that the electron threshold is where a perfect vacuum becomes a partial vacuum.

General Discussion
1. This study used an arbitrary particle threshold [3] operationally defined as two or more mite bits per each spot required by the respective particle. For electron and positron, a minimum of one spot is required (Table 3 in [1]; [4]). As rationale, less than a two-mite criterion (zero or only one mite) is thought to represent a perfect vacuum status. If the criterion were increased, say, to three mites, then the particle thresholds for leptons (Figs. 3 and 4) and baryons (Fig. 5) would be expected to increase.

2. The present simple simulation experiment identified a number of vacuum thresholds of probable physical significance.

The BM perfect vacuum, below the partial vacuum level, contains only mites (lepton and quark) and lites (photonic and gluonic). This BM fact implies that all other theories of vacuum constituents, such as various fields (EM or other), dark matter and energy, etc, may be represented as BM bit (mite and lite) distributions. If proponents of such theories regarding vacuum content cannot represent their specifics as BM bit distributions, either the respective theories or BM might be assumed to be in error.

The particle threshold [3] of only two mites per required spot used in the present simulation was liberal, only one increment above one mite per spot, which is thought to be below the particle threshold and clearly in the perfect vacuum range. One might say that determination of the correct particle threshold is a sort of holy grail in this work. That threshold delimits what is matter or antimatter versus what remains in a perfect vacuum or partial vacuum when most matter particles are removed naturally or by lab equipment.

Determination of correct particle thresholds with reasonable confidence is required to study in complete detail the BM requirements for motion of particular particles, from which observed rest mass ratios can be obtained, as described previously [3].

3. Further study may help calibrate the temperature scale (e.g., Fig. 1) including the approximate bit density of our daily, "room temperature" world. This bit density must be above the electron and R baryon thresholds since our world is made largely of electrons and nucleons, and presumably above the emission threshold since absorption-emission phenomena have been extensively observed and analyzed by humans. On the other hand, our daily world on the surface of planet Earth probably consists of bit densities below the thermal II threshold, else humans might be vaporized and there would be no science at all.

In short, room temperature in the range of some 270-290 degrees Kelvin probably corresponds to the 0.125 bit density range, where lites start to clearly outnumber mites (Fig. 2). The corresponding temperature was about four orders of magnitude below absolute maximum temperature in this pilot study.

On the other hand, CERN's proton vs nucleus collisions temperature estimate [8] is reportedly about 1010 or 10 trillion degrees Kelvin. But an order of magnitude estimate (280 x 104) for absolute maximum temperature from the figures above is approximately 106 or 1 million degrees Kelvin, four orders of magnitude below the CERN estimate. Somebody may be assuming something where it may not be warranted in these calculations.

4. The variation in slope at which temperature increases as a function of proportion maximum bit density up to absolute maximum temperature (Fig. 1) raises the question of which slope corresponds to the range in which the ideal gas law is valid. This sort of consideration suggests an interesting time ahead where investigators may re-evaluate assumptions in view of BM results such as the present report.

5. The matter versus antimatter asymmetry may also be relevant in the present context. Perhaps most noteworthy is the reported predominance of matter in this study consistent with, and explaining, the asymmetry.

In particular, antimatter positrons and L quarks and their baryons had essentially zero incidence as particles in our room temperature laboratories (Fig. 1), but bits in their spots are far from missing in action. Indeed, positron bits and L quarks bits, as opposed to the corresponding particles as such, are integral parts of protons (Table 3 in [1], [2] [7]).

6. The present study should be repeated using a three-mite particle threshold and other variations, such as increased density resolution (smaller density increments per Tick). The method used could distort the thresholds since randomly added bits may be unphysical to some extent, or at least cause events to occur suggesting a threshold, which otherwise would not have occurred if, say, bits were added at the periphery as in incoming radiation. In short, increased density resolution and increased sample sizes are needed. For example, the former might allow projection of the electron counts to the x-axis density to specify the electron threshold in Fig. 3. Alternatively, larger samples would enable use of simple statistics to establish standard errors at specific densities to define thresholds based on statistical significance.

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Captives in a binary mechanical universe" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Absolute maximum temperature" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[6] Keene, J. J. "Maximum temperature below half maximum bit density" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics electron, positron and proton" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[8] Wikipedia. "Temperature" March, 2011.
© 2011 James J Keene