Monday, June 20, 2011

Blackbody and Hydrogen Spectrums from Binary Mechanical Postulates?

Possible blackbody and hydrogen spectrums produced by binary mechanical (BM) postulates [1] as evolved over time with simulation software [2] and a new spectrum analysis program are presented. Examples of these spectrums (e.g., Fig. 1) may have implications for (1) length conversion functions between BM and observational spaces [3] [4] (2) correct BM bit operations order for time-development of BM system states [5] and (3) calibration of temperature in degrees Kelvin in terms of average single mite bit motion due to electromagnetic (EM) forces [6] [7].

Fig. 1: Spectrum of 40x40x40 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 13)

Fig. 1 shows a screen shot of the new spectrum utility called HotSpec. The spectrum was generated by the HotSpot 1.29 BM simulation software, using default settings, immediately pressing the "b" key on startup to enter BOX mode. HotSpec uses Hotspot output files for input and saves the resulting spectrum in an Excel-compatible text file including spectrum wavelength as expressed in HotSpot Ticks and spectrum amplitude. This HotSpec output file is saved with a similar pathname as the input file with "_spc" appended to the file name. HotSpec 1.0 is included in the HotSpot 1.29 download.

Hence, investigators can use their own spectrum analysis software using the OutBits column of the HotSpot .csv file. Or the saved HotSpec spectrum "_spc" file may be further analyzed.

The peak amplitude in the spectrum is labelled in BM ticks which is 4 x {horizontal pixel position} x {Ticks per bar} (Fig. 1). The highest amplitude peak to the right has a similar appearance to a blackbody spectrum.

Fig. 2 shows the highest frequency detail at the left in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2: Spectrum Detail of 40x40x40 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 1)

At tick 8, 12 and 16, these higher amplitude bars in the spectrum may represent lepton emission events. The isolated single bar at 84 ticks matches the central baryon bit cycle [8] and may therefore indicate nucleon events. The smaller more diffuse peaks to the right may represent energies associated with quantum transitions in the simulated material as determined by 1-state bit patterns.

Fig. 3 shows a spectrum from a simulation of a larger space at similar bit density.

Fig. 3: Spectrum of 56x56x56 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 13)

Again, a blackbody-like spectrum dominates the view on the right. Compared to Fig. 1, a more detailed set of peaks appeared to the left at higher frequencies. Finally, Fig. 4 shows detail of higher frequency components in Fig. 3.

Fig. 4: Spectrum Detail of 56x56x56 Spot Space (Ticks per bar = 1)

Comparing Figs. 2 and 4, the 84 tick baryon bit cycle is visible in both. On the other hand, compared to the 40x simulation (Fig. 2), the 56x simulation produced a greater number of higher amplitude spectral peaks (Fig. 4).

Several current issues in BM may be relevant to the spectrum examples presented.

Length Conversion Functions. The wavelengths (x-axis) in Figs. 1 to 4 are in fact BM simulator Ticks, each of which represent four tick intervals of BM time unit t. Velocity is quantized where a bit may move BM distance unit d in time t. Setting this velocity to the nominal value of one, the tick counts may be interpreted as wavelengths.

Length conversion functions may be required to map length in BM space to length in meters in observational space. A previous effort to accomplish this goal [3] [4] was found wanting, although a feasible approach to defining correct length conversion functions was presented. For example, larger samples were needed such as provided by the current spectrums.

One clue may be that the Lyman lines in the hydrogen spectrum have wavelengths (approx. 1E-7 meters) about an order of magnitude shorter than the wavelength (approx. 1E-6 meters) of blackbody radiation at about 1000 degrees Kelvin. In BM space, the finer spectral lines at the left of Fig. 3, which may represent peaks in the hydrogen spectrum, are also about one order of magnitude less than the wavelength at the peak of the apparent blackbody spectrum shown to the right. If correct BM length conversion functions were established, the spectrums obtained with BM simulation may be matched to observed spectrums with sample sizes sufficient to establish statistical significance.

This approach would involve controlled experimental simulations, varying a number of parameters one at a time, including bit density, and hence, average temperature. For example, with increased temperature, the peak of the suspected blackbody part of the spectrum would be expected to shift to higher frequencies with an amplitude increase. Indeed, compared to Fig. 1, Fig. 3 appears to show a higher temperature in the suspected blackbody portion of the spectrum, even though the bit densities were similar. From the initial random bit distributions at this density (approx. 0.25 maximum bit density) in the 40x and 56x samples, it appears that phenomena increasing a blackbody temperature component appear in the larger volume sample, for as yet unexplained reasons. In other words, rather different events may evolve from similar bit densities with different randomized initial states.

However, with increased temperature, the suspected hydrogen (or other low-Z atom) spectral components might be expected to remain unchanged in wavelength, but with increased amplitude. At bit densities below the baryon threshold [9], there should be no atomic spectral components.

In short, atomic and blackbody sections of the spectrum appear to provide somewhat independent tests of both prospective length conversion functions and the ability of BM postulates to generate important physical phenomena.

Bit Operations Order. Another issue is correct bit operations order. In particular, the order of the unconditional, EM scalar and EM vector bit operations is not yet convincingly established [5]. By similar reasoning as presented above, only one order of these three fundamental bit operations can be correct and therefore yield the best matches between spectrums generated in BM space and reported experimental values.

Temperature Calibration. By the same token, progress in solving the puzzles presented above might lead to a systematic, credible manner to calibrate mite kinetic energy tabulated in BM space with temperature in degrees Kelvin and thus specify absolute maximum temperature in familiar temperature units.

Summary. This report introduced a spectrum analysis program called HotSpec and the speculation that components of spectrums in simulated BM space (Figs. 1 to 4) may correspond to experimentally observed components of atomic spectrums and blackbody radiation. If true, BM may be the only theory to derive or obtain these spectrums based only on first postulates and principles. In contrast, present wavelength calculations are based on expressions designed to fit empirical measurements, based only in part on theory in quantum physics.

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics simulator updated" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Fundamental physics constants" J. Bin. Mech. June, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Fine-structure constant alpha" J. Bin. Mech. June, 2011.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Bit operations order" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[6] Keene, J. J. "Maximum temperature below half maximum bit density" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Absolute maximum temperature" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[8] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[9] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
© 2011 James J Keene