**Table 1: Effects of Bit Operation Order and Inertia**

Legend: Electrons (e-L), positrons (e+R), protons (EdR) and antiprotons (EdL). For mean and std. error, n = 12 (yellow and blue) and n=6 (green)

**Methods**

A perturbation method with a 48x48x48 spot cube was used to measure events starting from low bit density (0.009) increasing density by a similar amount with each BM simulator Tick, as described in more detail in reports on absolute maximum temperature [4] and vacuum thresholds [5].

Particle thresholds (e-L, e+R, EdR and EdL in Table 1) were set to the simulator default of two mites as described previously [5] and expressed as proportion maximum bit density (e.g., d(e-L) for electrons). Each particle threshold was defined as five successive non-zero simulator Ticks with the proportion maximum bit density for the middle Tick in the set recorded as the threshold density (Table 1).

Temperature was computed as kinetic energy due to electromagnetic (EM) forces (S and V bit operations), as described previously [4].

**Results**

**. Neither bit operation order or inertia ON or OFF substantially affected bit density threshold for matter particles. (1) The lowest thresholds -- mean = 0.0056 for d(e-L) -- were for electrons (yellow in Table 1). (2) A similar result, at a higher mean threshold of 0.1111, was found for matter baryons EdR thought to be mostly protons (blue in Table 1). In sum, the particle thresholds for the common matter particles of electrons and protons were not clearly affected by bit operation order or usage of inertia to condition the strong force.**

*Matter Particles***. With inertia ON, the density thresholds for positrons d(e+R) and antiprotons d(EdL) were higher than their respective matter particles (green in Table 1). (1) The positron threshold mean = 0.0716 was an order of magnitude greater than the electron threshold. The antiproton thresholds mean = 0.2756 were some 2 to 3 times greater than the proton thresholds. With inertia OFF, the antimatter thresholds were substantially greater for every operation permutation for both positrons and antiprotons (p <= 0.016, binomial distribution).**

*AntiMatter Particles***. The proportion maximum density for absolute maximum temperature d(Max T) did not show notable differences considering bit operations order (green in Table 1). However, with inertia OFF, maximum temperature was found at a significantly higher bit density in every case (p <= 0.016, binomial distribution).**

*Temperature*Temperature, expressed as a proportion of absolute maximum temperature, at which proton formation occurred T@d(EdR) was always greater (green) with inertia ON, compared to the inertia OFF condition.

**. Fig. 1 shows bit motion counts due to scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F) forces as a function of proportion maximum bit (energy) density, with the VUSF operator order and inertia ON (row 5, Table 1).**

*Force Strength***Fig. 1: Force Bit Motion Counts vs Proportion Maximum Density**

At densities below about 0.3 of maximum, the strong force and unconditional bit motion (not shown) dominate bit motion counts. Around bit density 0.2, bit motion due to scalar and vector forces, namely kinetic energy related to temperature, increase dramatically, with scalar force motion counts far exceeding vector force counts.

At about 0.43 energy density, electrostatic (S) force strength began to exceed the strong force strength, as quantified by bit motion counts. At about absolute maximum temperature [4] at 0.62 of maximum bit density, magnetic (V) forces begin to exceed the strong force. Table 1 sums the S and V bit motion counts, for the total EM effect, and reports that EM force strength became greater than the strong force (F) at 0.40 of maximum energy density.

For all six permutations of bit operations order, the bit density at which EM force strength exceeded strong force strength, as measured with bit motion counts, was lower with inertia ON, compared to the inertia OFF condition (Table 1).

**Discussion**

**. Inertia has been defined in BM as the product of the mite and lite states in a spot unit [1] [3]. Inertia equal to 1 in the spot unit containing the source bit for the strong potential was proposed to disable the strong force and thereby prevent scattering. This factor would facilitate bit motion out of electron [6] and proton [7] bit cycles.**

*Strong Force Conditioned by Inertia*In the present study, regardless of bit operation order, the inertia ON condition produced lower antimatter particle thresholds expressed in proportion maximum energy density. With inertia ON, the positron threshold was lower than the proton threshold, which may be significant since proton formation requires positrons (Table 3 in [1]). While this argument may not be enough to be fully convincing, it does favor use of inertia ON in the strong bit operation as more likely to produce correct physical results.

For all permutations of bit operations order, inertia ON was also found to (1) lower the energy density at which absolute maximum temperature occurred, (2) increase the temperature at which baryons such as protons are formed, and (3) reduce the energy (bit) density at which bit motion due to EM forces exceeds motion due to the strong force.

**. The BM basis for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter may be further clarified by the present results. Matter creation for electrons and protons occurred at substantially lower energy densities than those required for antimatter positrons and antiprotons (Table 1). Variation of the order of the unconditional, scalar and vector bit operations did not produce the marked effects seen with variation of inertia ON and OFF. This suggests that the BM explanation for matter asymmetry lies in the the more fundamental postulates defining spot units, eight spot types, and their physical arrangement in BM space.**

*Matter Asymmetry*On the other hand, the permutations of bit operation order focused on what might be correct physics for the EM forces while the dependent variables in the present study pertain mostly to particle creation. In other words, different experiments or analyses may be needed to distinguish which order is correct. Preliminary results suggest that the gravity effect [8] occurs most clearly with the USVF rather than the VUSF order. One might speculate that a bit operator order which does not produce a gravity effect must be excluded.

**References**

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.

[2] Keene, J. J. "Electromagnetic bit operations revised" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[3] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[4] Keene, J. J. "Absolute maximum temperature" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[5] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[6] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.

[7] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[8] Keene, J. J. "Gravity looses primary force status" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2011.

© 2011 James J Keene