Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Matter Creation Sequel

Abstract and Introduction
Matter creation based on electron and proton counts was examined after a simulated volume cooled to zero degrees Kelvin as a function of initial energy density. Findings include (1) lowest matter creation occurred starting from maximum energy density (1.0) and "perfect vacuum" density (0.1), (2) greatest matter creation was produced when starting from 0.3 energy density and (3) the SUVF bit operations order produced the greatest matter creation, compared to the VSUF and SVUF orders.

Background
Studies using the boosted energies of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN may provide only a primitive, keyhole view of possible events in the entire energy density range from absolute vacuum to absolute maximum energy density. Absolute vacuum and absolute maximum energy density are consequences of quantization of space and energy in binary mechanics (BM) [1] aka "full quantum mechanics". Energy was quantized by limiting spatial objects called bit loci to 0-states or 1-states. Then, absolute vacuum could be defined as a volume with all 0-state bit loci [2]. Note that so-called "perfect vacuum" may contain up to about 10% 1-state bit loci and is therefore not "empty space" (e.g., [3]). At the other extreme, absolute maximum energy density is achieved with all bit loci in a volume in the 1-state. The BM system state, named the bit function, is the spatial distribution of 1- and 0-state bits. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in "partial quantum mechanics" (QM) were not applicable mathematically. Thus, four bit operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [1] [4] implementing time-development of the system state. Since results depend on bit operations order, only one order can be physically correct [5].

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Matter Creation

Abstract and Introduction
Identified matter-antimatter asymmetry mechanisms have indicated that predominance of matter over antimatter results from ongoing processes in the present [1], not from events in the distant past in the early universe. With space-time quantization in binary mechanics (BM) [2], quantum mechanics (QM) time-development operators with infinitesimal increments in position or time were no longer applicable mathematically. Hence, four bit operations -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were defined based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations. Since results depend on bit operations order [3], a major research objective is to determine the one and only physically correct bit operations order. The present research question was: which bit operation orders favor matter creation in present real-time? This study found that VSUF, SVUF and SUVF orders produce matter creation (Figs. 1 and 2) and eliminated the USVF, UVSF and VUSF orders based on this criterion.

Fig. 1: Matter Creation: Electrons

Legend: 1-state bit density: probability a bit locus is in 1-state. Exp: expected based on random distribution of 1-state bits. SUVF, SVUF, VSUF: bit operations order. Red arrows: absolute maximum temperature (maximum S + V counts).

Saturday, May 7, 2016

Quantization Asymmetry

Quantization asymmetry has been defined as physical theories at the atomic and nuclear levels that quantize almost everything except space and time [1]. The continuous space-time assumption in classical and Standard Model (SM) physics and in General Relativity (GR) presently has no known justification other than tradition and superstition. Binary mechanics (BM) [2] may be seen as an instance of quantization asymmetry breaking, so to speak, since it implements quantization symmetry. In 2010, publication of the postulates of BM and some of their consequences began a transition in physics from quantization asymmetry to symmetry. This article outlines some major headlines in this developing story that has impact in virtually all sub-specialities in physics.

Fig. 1: What Death of a Theory Looks Like

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Particle Motion Representation

Abstract and Introduction
Observed properties of all so-called elementary particles arise from just four variations of a spatial object named a spot unit [1] [2] [3], among the smallest building blocks underlying physical phenomena described to date. A spot unit contains two binary bits named mite (M) and lite (L) with 0 or 1 allowed states, each located in a cubic bit locus of dimension d, a fundamental length constant [4], quantizing energy and space respectively (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: Spot Unit

The M bits have an electric charge attribute and are the electrostatic potential field. The first-ever calculations of Planck's constant h and of electron magnetic moment from first principles [4] [5] suggests that a mass attribute of energy is associated with M or mite bits. The L or lite bits are the magnetic potential field. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in quantum mechanics (QM) are not mathematically applicable. Hence, four time-development bit operations were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [6]. One of these, the vector bit operation, accelerates 1-state M bits to L bit loci in a quantized time tick t [7]. Modulo 2 parity of spot unit integer position coordinates determines spot unit direction (eq. 6 in [6]) and hence, motion direction for the scalar, vector and unconditional bit operations. This article presents a demonstration that 1-state L bits represent a motion attribute of energy coding length and direction of 1-state bit position change in subsequent time ticks.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

LIGO Gravity Wave Mechanism

Abstract and Introduction
A gravitational wave [1] observed at LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) [2] may provide experimental confirmation of two major results of binary mechanics (BM) [3]: (1) objects tend to move toward regions of higher vacuum energy density [4] [5] [6] and (2) light speed in vacuum decreases at reduced vacuum energy density [7] [8]. This paper outlines how the BM model of gravitational effects and the land-mark light speed discovery may fully account for the LIGO gravitational wave data.

Table 1: LIGO Gravitational Wave Mechanism and Detection

Sunday, March 6, 2016

BML Simulator Interface

This note announces release of a more user-friendly interface for the Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) [1], which may be downloaded by clicking the link.

Fig. 1: BML Simulator Interface Screen Shot (Expt 1)

Sunday, February 28, 2016

BML Simulator Batch Mode

This note announces release of a "batch mode" upgrade to the Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) v1.39 which may be downloaded by clicking the link. In addition to the hotspot 1.39 simulator, the download contains five *.bat files in its root directory (mine is c:\physics\hotspot) and a \bat subdirectory containing five examples of input parameter files in Microsoft text format (lines delineated with carriage return {13} and line feed {10}, 0D 0A sequences when viewed in hex format).

Fig. 1: Input Parameter File Format

Saturday, February 27, 2016

Electron Gas Standing Waves

While testing a new batch mode version of the Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS), remarkable standing waves of an electron gas in perfect vacuum were observed (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1: Standing Waves in Vacuum Electron Gas

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

GRACE: Gravity Surface Temperature Dependence

Abstract and Introduction
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) consists of twin satellites launched in March 2002 to make "detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field which will lead to discoveries about gravity" [1]. This report presents two such discoveries which provide additional confirmation of the prediction that object surface temperature increases gravitational force [2] [3], originally discovered with lunar laser ranging and lunar orbit perigee data [4]. First, comparing 13 years (2003 - 2015) of GRACE ocean data subtracting the coldest month (January) from the warmest month (July) in the northern hemisphere, GRACE showed greater gravity in the northern hemisphere when warmer (Fig. 1, right) and decreased gravity in the southern hemisphere when cooler (Fig. 1, left). Second, the product-moment correlation of the average GRACE ocean gravity measurements and ocean surface temperature (SST) over the available latitude data range was 0.697, suggesting that about one half (49%) of GRACE gravity measures in fact reflect ocean surface temperature, as predicted.

Methods and Results

Fig. 1: GRACE Gravity (July minus January mean, sem) vs Latitude

Sunday, January 31, 2016

Meson and Baryon Composition

From first principles of binary mechanics (BM) [1], eight and only eight fundamental or elementary particles were derived, each occupying a spatial object named a spot in a spot cube defined from a projection of spinor components of a pair of relativistic Dirac equations of opposite handedness to the eight vertexes of a cube quantizing space [2]. Each vertex or spot was postulated to consist of three perpendicular spot units defined from the two real components of the quantum mechanics (QM) complex wave function, further restricted to 0 or 1 allowed values, quantizing energy. Properties of the eight fundamental particles were then derived from the modulo 2 parities of the integer {x, y, z} spot coordinates in the spatial lattice, including charge, color, matter vs antimatter status, unconditional bit motion direction, handedness (left or right helicity), etc (Table 1 in [1],). These properties were used to show how most Standard Model (SM) lepton and quark particles may be compositions of the eight BM elementary particles [3]. This article adds information on some mesons and baryons, further illustrating their composition from BM particles and how the "three generations of matter" arise naturally from this analysis.

Table 1: Generation 1: Some TWO-d Mesons

Legend: Generation by number of d quarks (TWO-d). r, red; g, green; b, blue. /, antiparticle. X*, spot units in neighboring spot cubes.

Monday, January 25, 2016

Weak Force Boondoggle

Most physicists currently list several variations of "weak forces" as primary, fundamental forces of nature. In binary mechanics (BM), time-development of any system state is exactly determined by four bit operations -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong -- based on a pair of relativistic Dirac spinor equations of opposite handedness [1]. Table 1 maps supposed primary forces in legacy physics to these underlying mechanisms of time-evolution (based on Table 4 in [1]). The traditional weak force category maps to the unconditional bit operation. However, the unconditional bit operator is based on the momentum operator in the Dirac equation and is further differentiated from the BM primary forces by their mathematical definitions (Table 2) [2]. As a result, BM proposed that particle interactions that had suggested new "weak forces" could be accounted for by the unconditional bit operation, and therefore weak interactions do not represent a primary force of nature. This paper examines some weak interactions to illustrate that their basis is the unconditional bit operation.

Table 1: Bit Operations Basis of Legacy Primary Forces

Thursday, January 21, 2016

Standard Model Particle Composition

Abstract and Introduction
Binary mechanics (BM) defined 8 elementary particles based only on three binary digits, namely modulo 2 parity (0 or 1) of each position coordinate in 3 quantized spatial dimensions (Table 1 in [1]). These parities defined 8 adjacent location types, named spots [2], based on a pair of relativistic Dirac spinor equations of opposite handedness. Each spot was associated with one of these 8 elementary particles (Tables 1 to 3; Table 3 updated in [1]). A spot was composed of 3 smaller spatial objects, named spot units. In 2014, the 8 BM fundamental particles were found to be not as elementary as previously thought, but rather were themselves composed of only 4 types of spot units [3]. This article itemizes how 62 Standard Model (SM) "elementary" quarks and leptons may be built from the 8 original BM particles. In sum, 62 Standard Model quark and lepton particles may be entirely composed of only 4 types of spot unit, the most elemental objects known in physics [3].

Methods and Results
Table 1: Generation 1: Zero-d Leptons and ONE-d Quarks

Legend: L, left; R, right. r, red; g, green; b; blue. Neutrinos and anti-neutrinos by Majorana concept.

Monday, January 18, 2016

Friday, January 15, 2016

Faster Than Light

Binary mechanics (BM) [1] predicts that faster-than-light motion of 1-state bits occurs over specific distances under particular conditions defined by four time-development bit operations [2] -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F) [3] [4].

1-State Fermion Mite Bit Velocities
Distance d = 1. Bit velocity v = d/t where d and t are the fundamental quantized length and time constants [5]. Distance d is presently thought to be approximately 0.6 fm. Time interval t was calculated based on the speculation that so-called "light speed in vacuum" c = v/π (eq. 2 in [5]), approximately 6.34922E-25 seconds in the BM frame. In one time tick t of the unconditional bit operation, all 1-state bits (fermion mites and boson lites) and 0-state bits (1-bit neutrinos) move exactly one distance unit d at bit velocity v. With four bit operations each thought to have duration t, the average unconditional bit velocity over one cycle of bit operations application is v/4. It may be convenient to express these velocities in bit velocity units where light speed is 1/π and average velocity over 4 ticks t due to the unconditional bit operation is 1/4, less than purported light speed.

Fig. 1: Faster-Than-Light 1-State Fermion Mite Bit Motion

Legend: States of spatial objects named spot units over successive ticks (top to bottom). Each spot unit contains two bit loci named mite (circles) and lite (arrows) with 0 (blue) or 1 (black) allowed states. The last row adds view of a bit locus in an adjacent perpendicular spot unit. Strong bit operation direction (purple arrow).

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Particles in a Box

Abstract and Introduction
The Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) v1.38.1 [1] records position of particles in proton bit cycles and in electron bit cycles [2] as centers of mass (1-state bits) {r1, r2, r3} and {e1, e2, e3} respectively for each BMLS Tick. Hence, motion of particles in the proton cycle (perhaps mostly protons) and in the electron cycle (electrons) may be studied under various experimental conditions, such as applied electrostatic and magnetic fields, variations in temperature and pressure, etc. For example, zero motion was reported for both particle categories at zero degrees Kelvin [3]. This note presents some motion data and readily observable phenomena. Call it "particles in a box", for those who recall their first lessons in statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Most BMLS run time is occupied with generating the screen display, while its bit operations engine uses a small fraction of run time. Thus, BMLS v1.38.1 adds a parameter called "AllTicks". When toggled Off, display and output records to the *.cvs file are done only once per proton bit cycle (21 BMLS Ticks). AllTicks Off is convenient for studies over larger time intervals.

Methods and Results

Fig. 1: Motion of Proton and Electron Cycle Bits: XY Plane, All Ticks

Legend: Center of mass (1-state bits) motion for proton bit cycle (left) and electron bit cycle (right). 20000 BMLS Ticks. 32x32x32 spot volume. Initial Density 0.24

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Light Speed at Zero Kelvin

Abstract and Introduction
Light velocity at zero degrees Kelvin was examined. Major results of previous reports were replicated [1] [2]. First, light speed was zero at low vacuum energy (1-state bit) densities. That is, the hypothesis that the lowest vacuum densities are opaque to light transmission [3] was confirmed with improved measurement methods. Second, light speed decreased from its maximum velocity as energy density decreased. Third, light velocity was approximately equal to 1/π in bit velocity units [4], where bit velocity is d/t and d and t are the quantized fundamental length and time constants respectively. These results (1) change the status of Einstein's Special Relativity statement of constant light speed c in a vacuum independent of signal source velocity from postulate to known mechanism and (2) limit the vacuum density range in which light speed c may, in fact, be constant [1] and (3) highlight issues in light speed measurement methods.

Methods and Results
Fig. 1: Light Speed at Zero Kelvin vs Energy Density

Legend: Bit density: energy (1-state bit) density as proportion of maximum possible energy density. Light speed expressed in bit velocity units.

Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Zero Degrees Kelvin

Abstract and Introduction
Cooling a simulated system to zero degrees Kelvin [1] is examined in this exploratory pilot study. The zero Kelvin systems produced can be saved and used in other studies as initial states without any electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle motion. Methods to produce these zero Kelvin states and some results on their properties are presented and discussed.

Methods, Results and Discussion

Fig. 1: Final Densities at Zero Kelvin

Legend: VSUF (blue), SVUF (pink) bit operations order -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F).