Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Elementary Particle Energies

Abstract and Introduction
The eight elementary particles consist of four matter particles -- electron (e-L) and three R-handed d quarks (dR, red, green, blue), and four antimatter particles -- positron (e+R) and three L-handed d quarks (dL, red, green, blue) [1] [2]. With quantization of space, time and energy in binary mechanics (BM) [1], each of these eight particles is associated with a spatial object called a spot which may contain zero to six 1-state bits of quantized energy [3]. If a simulation randomly seeds these spots with 1-state energy bits, each particle type would represent about one eighth (0.125) of the total energy. This exploratory, descriptive study reports the discovery that application of the four fundamental time-evolution bit operations [4] causes redistribution of energy among the particle types which then exhibit markedly different energy densities. In addition, the distribution of energy among lepton and quark particle types by these time-development laws varies as a function of overall bit density in a physical system (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1: Elementary Particle Energies vs Bit Density

Legend: Matter: electrons (e-L, dark blue) and three R d quarks (dR, yellow). Anti-matter: positrons (e+R, pink) and three L d quarks (dL, light blue). Distribution of elementary particle energy (vertical) changes as a function of overall bit density (horizontal). SVUF (left) and VSUF (right) bit operations order.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Three Proton Bit Cycles From One Positron Spot

A single positron spot in a spot cube [1] can participate in three proton bit cycles in neighboring spot cubes adjacent to the home spot cube of the positron spot as previously reported [2]. The video below shows this phenomenon with the freely downloadable Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator v1.36.8.


Friday, April 17, 2015

Expanding Universe Questions

The discovery that light speed in vacuum c is not constant over the entire vacuum energy range may raise significant questions about expanding universe concepts. A recent study reported evidence that light speed c begins to decrease at lower vacuum energy densities and that volumes at zero vacuum energy density, named absolute vacuum, were in fact completely opaque to electromagnetic (EM) wave transmission (Fig. 1 from [1]).
Fig. 1: Light Speed vs Media Density and Bit Operations Order

These findings raise the possibility that observed redshifts may not be due to an expanding universe, but rather to regions of lower vacuum density where light speed is decreased producing the exact same observed redshifts. This possiblity may raise serious questions about the veracity of the expanding universe theory in astrophysics. Indeed, the question of whether the universe is expanding, contracting or neither may be back on the table again.

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Proton And Electron Bit Cycles

Analysis of the proton [1] [2] and electron [3] bit cycles (Fig. 1) has revealed that the bit positions in these two cycles account for all possible bit positions according to the postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [4] and a physical interpretation of BM space [3]. Hence, in addition to the four fundamental bit operations which determine exact time-development of system states, a new constraint on BM as a physical theory is that physical mechanisms for observed phenomena may typically involve one or both of these cycles. In tests of this new constraint, bit motion within and between no more than two different bit cycles -- proton and electron -- would hypothetically account for all observable physical events.

Fig. 1: Proton and Electron Bit Cycles

Legend: Six 1-state bit positions in electron cycle (yellow). 42 1-state bit positions in proton cycle. Matter d quarks (dark red, green, blue); anti-matter d quarks (light red, green, blue). Positron positions (grey). Arrows (purple) indicate bit motion direction and results of the strong bit operation [5]. The unconditional bit operation (black) accounts for all motion between color-coded spot types. XYZ positions shown without commas: e.g., 013 is {0,1,3}.