**Abstract and Introduction**

Breaking news: elementary charge *e* has been calculated for the first time from first principles of the leading comprehensive, fundamental quantum theory known as binary mechanics (BM) [1]. A quantized Coulomb force was defined (eq. 1). Based only on the time-development scalar bit operation [2] [3] and the three quantized units of measurement -- *M*, *L* and *T* (Fig. 1) [4], calculated electrostatic force (eq. 2) accounted for 97.6% of the quantized Coulomb force. Hence, **elementary charge ***e* may be derived from three primary physics constants based on energy-space-time quantization (eqs. 3 and 4).

**Fig. 1: Secondary Physics Constants Derived From Primary Constants**

**Abstract and Introduction**

Previous work has shown that quanta in the proton and electron bit cycles [1] moved in the same direction under applied magnetic potential fields regardless of the opposite net electric charge of the two quanta groups [2] [3]. This report looked at the effects of an applied electric potential field in either of two directions along the Y axis. Proton and electron cycle quanta moved according to their electric charge as expected from Coulomb's law. Also, both M and L type quanta participate in coding future motion. These findings further demonstrate that the **bit function** (eqs. 2 and 39 in [4]) in binary mechanics (BM) contains **simultaneous position ***and* motion representation.

**Fig. 1: Proton Displacement In Electric Fields**

**Abstract and Introduction**

Previous work has shown 1) object displacement after magnetic pulse injections [1] and 2) loss of motion-related inertia states after cooling to zero Kelvin [2]. These findings demonstrated that the **bit function** (eqs. 2 and 39 in [3]) in binary mechanics (BM) contains **simultaneous position ***and* motion representation. Therefore, the bit function is a major advance beyond the quantum mechanics (QM) wave function. Hence, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has been demoted from fundamental QM precept to "observer effect". This paper replicates the particle motion study [1] adding separate tracking of energy quanta (1-state bits) in the oppositely-charged proton and electron bit cycles. Magnetic pulse injections displaced quanta regardless of electric charge, further supporting the notion that some or all L bits may represent **magnetic monopoles**. In sum, with eqs. 5 and 6 in [3], bit function M and L bits each have two types: plus or minus charge and right or left direction respectively.

**Fig. 1: Proton Displacement After Magnetic Pulses**

Legend: Pulses: L bits (Y^ up or Yv down) injected at Tick 0. In length constant *L* units,

displacement expressed as Y component minus mean(X,Z) translated to zero at Tick 0.

**Abstract and Introduction**

The postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [1] and physical interpretation of BM space [2] define fluxes of 1-state bits between spot units of particles of eight elementary types. Interparticle flux sequences define all possible particle motion events. In sum, the spot cube precisely defines 1) lepton-quark transitions, 2) quark-antiquark transitions, 3) the lepton motion mechanism, 4) lepton-mediated proton motion and 5) proton motion mediated by quark-antiquark transitions (Fig. 1). These interparticle flux and particle motion events form a tree which may be extended to define all possible particle interactions based solely on first principles.

**Fig. 1: Discoveries in Particle Flux and Motion Analysis**

[Updated: May 27, 2018]

**Abstract and Introduction**

Related to the momentum concept, many L type 1-state bits may represent future particle motion [1]. Toward precise definition of leptons and quarks, elementary particle states were studied at zero Kelvin where particle motion is zero [2] thereby removing this momentum-related component. Results confirm previous reports [3] [4] where eight elementary particles [5] may be clearly distinguished by their specific states (Figs. 1 to 3). To further assess the effect of extreme cooling on system state, two conditions were compared: 1) zero Kelvin with zero particle motion and 2) a greater energy density with higher temperature and particle motion (Figs. 4 and 5). These data provide specific event detection criteria which may be incorporated in system state time-evolution and analysis software.

**Fig. 1: Summary: Elementary Particle States at Zero Kelvin**

[Updated: May 16, 2018]

**Abstract and Introduction**

Breaking news: Binary Mechanics Lab (BML) announces the **first-ever derivation of the proton-electron mass ratio** (Fig. 1). The derivation depended only on first principles of the comprehensive, fundamental physical theory known as binary mechanics (BM) [1] [2], without use of any mathematical constants or physical constants based on experimental measurements. A major consequence of this milestone discovery is two operational definitions of mass: 1) a fundamental, invariant value as a function of electron mass m_{e} and 2) the observed proton mass which depends on energy (1-state bit) density.

**Fig. 1: First-ever Proton-Electron Mass Ratio Derivation**

[Updated: May 12, 2018]

**Abstract and Introduction**

The effect of the time-evolution bit operations on elementary particle states [1] was examined by comparing proportions of spot states for each particle (spot type) with expected proportions based on random distribution of 1-state bits. Results include: 1) reduced probabilities of absolute vacuum and 2) increased probabilities of selected spot states (M and L bit composition) for each particle type, replicating previous findings [2]. That is, the time-development bit operations alter system state (the bit function) by concentrating 1-state M and L bits in selections of specific spot states in each elementary particle (spot type). **These data define 1) a specific role of the magnetic force (vector bit operation) in particle differentiation and 2) a possible operational definition of "magnetic monopoles"**.

**Fig. 1: Expected and Observed Particle Probabilities, E = 0, 1, 2**

**Abstract and Introduction**

The Binary Mechanics Lab (BML) software release for **Bit Function Analysis** (BFA) may mark a milestone particle physics methodology advance. Particle interactions and effects of various independent variables such as electromagnetic potentials may now be viewed and assessed directly thereby reducing reliance on operational definition from distant event detector outputs, as currently used at particle accelerator sites such as CERN. This article describes use of the BFA program and some preliminary results which suggest that electron and quark particles and their energy levels may now be rigorously defined through direct observation.

**Fig. 1: Particle Physics Methodology Milestone**

**Abstract and Introduction**

On Sept. 18, 2017, Cat 5 hurricane Maria destroyed Binary Mechanics Lab (BML), located in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean West Indies windward islands. just as BML was emerging as the leading fundamental physics lab in the world (see e.g. [1] [2] [3]). For over six months, BML had no utility-supplied electric power and internet. At present, BML has been largely rebuilt. This article reviews upcoming BML activities, including research publications and software.

**Fig. 1: Getting Started: Bit Function Analysis**

**Abstract and Introduction**

Matter creation based on electron and proton counts was examined after a simulated volume cooled to zero degrees Kelvin as a function of initial energy density. Findings include (1) lowest matter creation occurred starting from maximum energy density (1.0) and "perfect vacuum" density (0.1), (2) greatest matter creation was produced when starting from 0.3 energy density and (3) the SUVF bit operations order produced the greatest matter creation, compared to the VSUF and SVUF orders.

**Background**

Studies using the boosted energies of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN may provide only a primitive, keyhole view of possible events in the entire energy density range from absolute vacuum to absolute maximum energy density. **Absolute vacuum** and **absolute maximum energy density** are consequences of quantization of space and energy in binary mechanics (BM) [1] aka "full quantum mechanics". Energy was quantized by limiting spatial objects called **bit loci** to 0-states or 1-states. Then, absolute vacuum could be defined as a volume with all 0-state bit loci [2]. Note that so-called "perfect vacuum" may contain up to about 10% 1-state bit loci and is therefore not "empty space" (e.g., [3]). At the other extreme, absolute maximum energy density is achieved with all bit loci in a volume in the 1-state. The BM system state, named the **bit function**, is the spatial distribution of 1- and 0-state bits. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in "partial quantum mechanics" (QM) were not applicable mathematically. Thus, four **bit operations** -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [1] [4] implementing time-development of the system state. Since results depend on bit operations order, only one order can be physically correct [5].

**Abstract and Introduction**

Identified matter-antimatter asymmetry mechanisms have indicated that predominance of matter over antimatter results from ongoing processes in the present [1], not from events in the distant past in the early universe. With space-time quantization in binary mechanics (BM) [2], quantum mechanics (QM) time-development operators with infinitesimal increments in position or time were no longer applicable mathematically. Hence, four **bit operations** -- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were defined based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations. Since results depend on bit operations order [3], a major research objective is to determine the one and only physically correct bit operations order. The present research question was: which bit operation orders favor matter creation in present real-time? This study found that **VSUF, SVUF and SUVF orders produce matter creation** (Figs. 1 and 2) and eliminated the USVF, UVSF and VUSF orders based on this criterion.

**Fig. 1: Matter Creation: Electrons**

Legend: 1-state bit density: probability a bit locus is in 1-state. Exp: expected based on random distribution of 1-state bits. SUVF, SVUF, VSUF: bit operations order. Red arrows: absolute maximum temperature (maximum S + V counts).

**Quantization asymmetry** has been defined as physical theories at the atomic and nuclear levels that quantize almost everything *except* space and time [1]. The continuous space-time assumption in classical and Standard Model (SM) physics and in General Relativity (GR) presently has no known justification other than tradition and superstition. Binary mechanics (BM) [2] may be seen as an instance of *quantization asymmetry breaking*, so to speak, since it implements quantization symmetry. In 2010, publication of the postulates of BM and some of their consequences began a transition in physics from quantization asymmetry to symmetry. This article outlines some major headlines in this developing story that has impact in virtually all sub-specialities in physics.

**Fig. 1: What Death of a Theory Looks Like**