Binary mechanics (BM) [1] provides a rather simple explanation of dark matter and energy. Let us focus on two components of the definition of dark matter in astrophysics, namely matter which (1) has gravitational effects and (2) does not emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation, which suggests the "dark" descriptor for this matter.

The electron spot may serve to present the underlying mechanisms of dark matter.

**Fig. 1: Electron Spot XYZ Parity = 111**

Fig. 1 from [2] shows a possible physical arrangement of the three spot units in an electron spot. Each spot unit is thought to have a 1dx1dx2d size, where d is the fundamental BM length unit for quantized space. One mite (black circles) and one lite (black arrows) bit locus occupy a 1x1x1 sub-cube of the spot unit. The tick is the BM quantized unit of time. In the unconditional bit operation tick, 1-state mite bits move (shift) to 1-state lite bits within each spatial dimension x, y and z. In the subsequent inter-dimensional, strong bit operation tick [3], these 1-state lite bits may move (scatter) to mite loci (white arrows).

Dark matter is a consequence of how electron spots are populated with 1-state bits.

**Fig. 2: Some Electron Spot States**

Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram to show several such states, with 0-state (blue) and 1-state (black) bits. Fig. 2A is absolute vacuum -- all 0-state bits. Fig. 2B-2D show stable states with one to three mite bits respectively.

A mite locus may acquire the 1-state by only two mechanisms (purple arrows in Fig. 2). First is an inter-dimensional transition from a 1-state lite bit due to the strong force (white arrows in Fig. 1). Second, incoming bits from right-handed quark spots in the spot cube may shift into mite loci in the unconditional bit motion operation. This second mechanism is equivalent to saying that a 1-state bit has exited a baryon bit cycle [4] and entered an electron bit cycle [2].

By either mechanism, a single bit in an electron spot (Fig. 2B) is thought to be below the electron particle threshold [5] and hence, this state of the electron spot (Fig. 2B) is in the perfect vacuum range. This bit will cycle in the electron bit cycle every twelve ticks and unless disturbed, will not exit the cycle to adjacent right-handed quark spots.

In short, dark matter is born if we assume this single 1-state bit participates in gravitational effects, but no EM radiation is emitted. This assumption is strongly supported by the BM fact that there is nothing else possible except mite and lite bits in a spatial volume. Further support for this sort of mechanism for dark matter may be found in a recent report [6] suggesting that a minimum bit density is required for gravity-like effects to occur.

With two or three mites (Figs. 2C-2D) in an electron spot, two possible particle thresholds for an electron are attained. The threshold of two means two (Fig. 2C) or three (Fig. 2D) mites; the threshold of three means three mites. The physical meaning of particle thresholds is defined as the number of mites required for the particle to be directly detected by sensor devices. Which threshold is the physically correct number is as yet not firmly decided.

In any case, if undisturbed, the range of one to three mites in electron spots all qualify as stable states and as dark matter, since no EM radiation would be emitted (from the electron bit cycle).

Consider the situation where a bit enters an electron spot such that two sequential bits in its cycle are in the 1-state. According to the strong bit operation, two mechanisms could result in emission of one unit of energy (one bit) from the electron spot. First, if the two sequential 1-state bits occupy a single spot unit in the spot, then inertia evaluates to one which disables the strong force resulting in a bit leaving the electron spot in the next unconditional bit operation tick. Second, if one of the sequential bits is a source bit for the strong operation and the other is a destination bit, the strong potential evaluates to zero and the source bit cannot scatter within the electron spot, but instead exits the spot in the next unconditional bit motion operation.

In sum, whether below (Fig. 2B) or above (Fig. 2C or Fig. 2D) electron particle threshold, the exact situations in which matter is dark (not emitting radiation) can be enumerated. A quantitative approach appears to be feasible, either theoretically by tabulating the probabilities for all the permutations of the mechanisms described above, or empirically via use of the BM simulator program.

These mechanisms, with the potential to fully account for the presence of dark matter, would apply to positron and quark spots as well. Notice that a stable or ground state bit pattern in these bit cycles is equivalent to dark matter as conventionally defined, namely no radiation is emitted. This assertion is further equivalent to requiring normal matter to be always luminous, which, of course, it cannot be if energy (radiation) has not been previously absorbed as described above.

This terminology may be sort of messy, since by definition, ground state matter does not emit radiation. So which is it -- dark matter or ordinary matter? Given the kind of precision that BM requires, such terminological issues in physics literature can only cause confusion.

Concerning dark energy, Fig. 2E shows the electron spot state after the unconditional bit motion tick is applied to the state in Fig. 2D. Can we consider the 1-state lite bits as radiated energy within an electron -- energy which has not yet exited an electron spot? If so, are these related to the concept of dark energy?

Both configurations shown in Fig. 2D and 2E are stable states and one might allow that different electron spots may be in either state at a particular time (tick). That is, many electron spots may be out of phase with others. With the electron bit cycle, these two configurations are examples of the complete set where stable electron spots alternate between all-mite and all-lite states. This consideration may invoke the image that an electron alternates between all-matter and all-radiation states, but this description may be more poetry than physics.

At this point, an abundance of caution may be advisable. For example, the idea of dark energy appears to be closely related to a constant in General Relativity where Einstein thought it necessary to jump through a maze of mathematical hoops, including so-called space-time curvature [7], to explain gravity. In BM, it turns out that gravity is probably not even a fundamental or primary force [6], but rather a secondary effect, such as friction, surface tension and the like, of the four fundamental bit operations. Thus, it may be premature to attempt a detailed quantitative approach since some of the assumptions on which dark energy is based may be subject to significant revision.

Estimates of dark matter (and energy) will no doubt not be easy to calculate, given the dependence of the mechanisms described herein on overall bit (energy) density in the volume of interest and the objects it contains. If that volume is the universe, cosmologists might want to attempt to determine the appropriate average values of the probabilities for the dark matter mechanisms described above.

**References**

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.

[2] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.

[3] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[4] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[5] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[6] Keene, J. J. "Gravity looses primary force status" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2011.

[7] Keene, J. J. "Physics glossary" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.

© 2011 James J Keene