## Saturday, September 17, 2011

### A Law of Motion

Several consequences of the postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [1] may be summarized in a basic physics law of motion, namely that objects tend to move in the direction of higher bit density. Fig. 1 illustrates this idea for one spatial dimension.

Fig. 1: A Law of Motion

This working hypothesis of a fundamental law of motion in physics is applicable for objects ranging from elementary particles to astronomical objects such as planets and entire galaxies. This note reviews some results and logic supporting this hypothesis.

Assume that 1-state bits in an object have equal probability of moving in either direction along the x dimension in Fig. 1. Recall that detectable particles contain higher counts of 1-state bits in their defining spot locations ([2]; Table 3 in [1]). Therefore, 1-state bits moving to the region of higher bit density to the right in Fig. 1 have a greater chance of forming particles, compared to those moving to the lower density volume to the left.

This motion process has been analyzed in detail for the electron [3], where electron motion is seen as consisting of motion of single bits from one electron bit cycle [4] to another. This inter-cycle motion can cause the 1-state count of the source cycle to drop below particle threshold [2] and that of the destination cycle to surpass particle threshold. This process may be perceived as an "electron" moving from location A to B, even though only a single 1-state bit has moved.

Inter-cycle bit motion accounts for both Newton's classical and Einstein's relativistic laws of motion. These results may be generalized as follows.

1. 1-state bits are generally confined to lepton [4] or baryon [5] bit cycles, constantly moving in the loops defined by the respective cycles. This intra-cycle motion defines the internal structure and properties of elementary particles, as opposed to particle motion per se.

2. All particle motion involves 1-state bit transitions where the bit exits a cycle and enters another cycle. According to BM bit operations [1] [6], 1-state bits exit a cycle only when coupled with another 1-state bit sequentially [7].

3. The apparent low "mass" of the electron may be due to the fact that inter-cycle motion of a single 1-state bit may be sufficient to achieve a quantized unit of motion from one electron spot to another. For proton motion, more spots, longer time intervals and a substantially greater bit motion count are no doubt required on average to achieve a quantized unit of proton motion from one spot cube to a neighboring cube. Hence, proton "mass" would be expected to be assessed to have a much greater value.

4. Recall that "mass" is merely a proportionality constant relating acceleration to force. In this context, use of mass as a fundamental quantity in present physics thinking and expressions actually hides the underlying BM mechanisms of motion.

Bit Operations
Time-development of the state of any physical system is precisely defined by four BM bit operations -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong [1]. The role of each bit operation in particle motion may be briefly summarized.

Unconditional. The unconditional bit operation is directly responsible for all inter-cycle bit motion, which corresponds to motion as conventionally understood. For example, the role of unconditional operations in nuclear explosive devices has been emphasized [8].

Strong. Along with a physical interpretation of BM space [9], the strong bit operation [10] is responsible for the existence of looping bit cycles mentioned above. Historically and up to the present, this confinement of 1-state bits in baryon bit cycles has confused investigators attempting to explain it in terms of a "nuclear" or "strong" force, leading to a dead-end street both theoretically and experimentally.

Electromagnetic. The two electromagnetic (EM) bit operations -- scalar and vector [11] [12] -- may cause mite-to-lite bit transitions within spot units, and as such, affect the phase of bits in lepton or baryon bit cycles. Hence, the EM operations do not directly cause inter-cycle bit motion. Instead, EM actions can modify the phase configuration of 1-state bits in a cycle to produce sequential 1-state bit pairs required for inter-cycle motion [7].

Gravity
Recall that gravity is not a primary force in physics [13]. Instead, gravity appears to be an instance of a basic BM law of motion rather than a separate or independent force requiring some form of "unification" with the strong and EM forces. Indeed, a recent research report strongly suggests that most of the variation both in lunar laser ranging (LLR) data and lunar perigee may be explained by a surface temperature effect producing increased bit density between earth and moon, compared to density in other directions [14].

Of possible major significance is the simple fact that surface temperature and the foregoing predictions are not explicitly considered in either the so-called "universal law of gravitation" or Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, both of which attempt to quantify what motion happens with no real explanation of why or how it happens. Perhaps the reported surface temperature and resulting bit density factors are hidden in the "universal gravitational" and "cosmological" constants in these theories respectively.

Summary
BM reduces classical and relativistic notions of object motion to a law of motion, based on a simple set of postulates [1].

The apparent success of BM as a physical theory is based in part on its ability to generate dozens of testable predictions. In addition, while classical and quantum physics generally describe an approximation of what happens in physical systems, as long as very short distances and time intervals are not involved, BM duplicates this description with greater precision as well as explaining the underlying mechanisms for the phenomena -- that is, how events happen.

References
[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Captives in a binary mechanical universe" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Electron acceleration and quantized velocity" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics electron, positron and proton" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[5] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[6] Keene, J. J. "Bit operations order" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Dark matter and energy" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[8] Keene, J. J. "Ideal gas law: limited density range" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[9] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
[10] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[11] Keene, J. J. "Electromagnetic bit operations revised" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[12] Keene, J. J. "Quantized electromagnetism" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[13] Keene, J. J. "Gravity looses primary force status" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2011.
[14] Keene, J. J. "Gravity increased by surface temperature" J. Bin. Mech. August, 2011.
© 2011 James J Keene