## Saturday, February 19, 2011

### Physical Interpretation of Binary Mechanical Space

Updated Jan 26, 2016
Computer simulation of the time development of states (bit patterns) in binary mechanics (BM) [1] requires a physical interpretation of its quantized space. As shown in Fig. 1, let us view a spot unit as two cubes with side length d, a BM fundamental constant, one each for the fermion mite bit (M, circle) and the boson lite bit (L, arrow).

Fig. 1: 2-Bit Spot Unit

A spot is thought to consist of three perpendicular spot units.

Fig. 2: Spots 000 and 111

Legend: Spot 000 (left), antimatter positron (e+R) and 111 (right), matter electron (e-L)..

In the electron spot (Fig. 2 right), the direction of unconditional bit motion, derived from the quantum mechanics momentum operator, is shown by the direction of the lite bits (black arrows). A tick, another fundamental BM constant, is defined as the time t for one bit to move one unit of distance d. Thus, if a bit moves in a particular tick, its velocity v is d/t. There are only two possible velocities -- v or zero when a bit does not move in a particular tick. If a potential exists, the bit will move if the destination site is empty -- namely, its bit value equals zero. All the binary mechanical forces (strong, scalar and vector) follow this rule which stipulates that any location can contain only one bit (mite or lite).

The direction of the strong force, which allows bit motion between dimensions X, Y and Z, is shown by the white arrows.
Use of the term "strong force" is but one of many points which may confuse readers. BM uses terminology from modern physics, but the exact meaning may be different. In BM, "strong force" is presently the only interdimensional bit motion and is important to understand both the electron and baryons, such as the proton, composed mostly of quarks. Indeed, the internal structure, if you will, of the electron is one of the significant results of BM.
The next paper in this venue will introduce the computer simulation software and provide a number of encouraging results. At this time, a number of permutations of equations published previously [1] have been tested toward this end. The present venue provides an informal means to publish progress.
Notice that electron spots will tend to capture incoming bits since bits always scatter (white arrows) in a direction to cycle a bit within the spot. If the destination locus is already occupied, then there is no strong force, and the lite bit can then exit the electron spot in the subsequent unconditional motion tick.

As an example, consider the lite bit in the X dimension. If the mite bit in the Y dimension is empty, then there may be a strong force (if a strong potential is also present) and this lite bit will scatter (white arrow) to the mite locus in the Y dimension. Otherwise, in the next unconditional motion tick, the lite bit will exit the electron spot and become a mite bit in the spot 011 quark object.
Assuming the BM forces do not occur simultaneously, one can consider a repeated four tick sequence, one tick each for unconditional, strong, scalar and vector bit motion. This assumption ensures that in any tick, a bit may move no more than distance d. Simulation results can be dramatically different for different orders of application of these forces. Therefore, only one of the possible bit operation orders can be a correct representation of the time-development mechanisms underlying physical phenomena.
A spot occupies a 2d cube, of which only six bits are defined. That is, each bit is thought to reside in a 1d sub-cube of this 2d cube. The function of the two void 1d sub-cubes is not yet defined. However, for computing values such as distance and bit density, the 2d cube volume for a spot may be used.

Finally, each of the six bit locations provide a set of X, Y and Z coordinates that can be used to calculate angular momentum -- the intrinsic spin of the spot.
A major BM issue is "what is a single electron?" At present there are several alternatives. (1) A single bit in an electron spot may suffice, because over many ticks, it can occupy all three mite locations in the spot. (2) An electron may be two or three mites in a single electron spot which then define possible particle thresholds. If so, what is the significance of one mite in an electron spot? Have we just defined what dark matter is? (3) We might suppose that an electron is only observable by scientists if two sequential 1-state bits are present. This definition for an operational definition of an electron might be the best, since two sequential 1-state bits results in the emission of one unit of energy (one 1-state bit), which appears to be required for our sensors to detect electron presence. In other words, something is a "particle" if we can detect it. Note that non-sequential 1-state bits in an electron spot are trapped in the spot and undetectable by ordinary sensors that require some energy input to "trigger an event".

What about extra lites in an electron spot? These contribute to increased energy levels for the particular electron. Specifically, extra lites increase the odds that 1-state bits will be emitted from electron spots. But that is only three photonic lites. Yes, but during a very short time tick t. Over larger time intervals, much larger amounts of energy could be emitted from a single electron spot if also absorbing incoming 1-state bits. Further, there may be many definable, additional energy levels if lites exiting an electron spot are considered in terms of their "spot origin" as they later influence nearby spots.
The positron spot (Fig. 2 left) presents a somewhat different picture. For example, mites scatter to lites. The spot units in both the electron and positron spots all point to quark spots in the same spot cube. Another similarity in these two lepton spots is the that when lites exit a spot, matter is conserved (lites from electron go to right-handed d quarks) and anti-matter is conserved (lites from positrons go to left-handed anti-matter d quark spots). Since d quarks are building blocks for nucleons, this may be considered as a new result of BM, e.g., that electrons play a key role in proton creation.

In sum, matter -- electron mites -- most immediately transfer bits to matter -- proton constituents. Likewise, the antimatter positron bits, when leaving a positron spot arrive at the antimatter left-handed d quark spots.
Fig. 3: Spot Cube

Fig. 3 shows the spot cube where the electron spot is not visible in the viewpoint shown. The matter right-handed d quarks are dark red, green and blue. The grey spot is the positron and the rest are light red, green and blue left-handed d quarks. The left-handed antimatter quark spots are to the right, left and below the positron spot, which may help visualize that any lite exiting a positron spot enters a left-handed antimatter quark.

The strong, vector and scalar potentials are based on states of bits in loci immediately adjacent to the "source" bit locus over distance d. The present physical interpretation of spots (Figs. 2 and 3) was chosen, in part, because parallel countercurrent and concurrent spot units [1] are adjacent at distance d when assembled into a spot cube or adjacent spot cubes are considered respectively. Perhaps noteworthy is that all "magnetic" interactions (vector bit operation) occur within a spot cube in the countercurrent channels. Also, all "electric" interactions (scalar bit operation) occur between spot cubes where the concurrent channels are adjacent, one in each cube.

The electron spot would tend to "capture" 1-state bits which then cycle over successive ticks within the spot. Considering the three mite positions where electric charge is exhibited and the respective directions of mite motion in the electron spot, application of the right-hand rule indicates that the magnetic moment axis is directed outward at 45 degree angles to each of the X, Y and Z dimensions shown.

Since an electron spot may contain one, two or three mites (not to mention any lites which may be seen as "out of phase" mites), one may predict at least three values of magnetic dipole moment with the one-mite lowest value related to the lowest energy states perhaps most commonly seen in experimental measurements.

Noting that the three mite positions in each of the two lepton spots (electron and positron) are exactly symmetrical to the axis of their magnetic dipole moments, the present physical interpretation of binary mechanical space predicts that the electric dipole moments of the electron and positron are each exactly zero.

The next paper will introduce the computer simulation software using this physical interpretation of BM space and present some results consistent with observations that matter is more prevalent than antimatter, both for leptons and for quarks.

References
[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
© 2010 James J Keene