**Fig. 1: Solid View of "Exploding Sphere"**

Each icon represents a

**spot**showing mites (+, -) and lites for the X (<, left; >, right), Y (^, up; v, down) and Z (*, oncoming; x, receding) dimensions. Where a spot contains both mite and lite, preference is to show the mite, unless a program option is selected to show lites only.

This

**solid view**shows only the "surface", namely those spots containing bits closest to the observer in the Z dimension projected on the XY plane displayed. The color codes indicate distance from the observer (yellow closest and purple most distant in the case shown in Fig. 1).

The histogram on the right in Fig. 1 is the average of three histograms, one each for the X, Y and Z dimensions, intended to illustrate the degree of spatial symmetry in bit distribution.

The distribution taken after about 21 ticks for Fig. 1 shows mite and lite bits emerging from the 8-spot radius, maximum-density initial state, which, as can be seen, is not stable. It is as if energy, in the form of material (mites) and radiation (lites), is being emitted in all directions.

**HotSpot Simulator Software**

The simulation program (named HotSpot) includes an engine to implement the time development of the bit states in a cube of space. To increase speed, the core engine was written with Assembler language inserts into the HotBasic code. Additional components display and analyze data (Fig. 2). A free Windows version of HotSpot may be downloaded here.

**Fig. 2: Tick 520 Plane View From Random Initial Bit State**

The size of the simulated space cube may be selected at run-time and was set to 32 spots as displayed in the upper-right text "Dim = 32". The

**plane view**shows bit pattern in a 3-spot deep plane perpendicular to the Z dimension ("XYplane 16" in the text on the right). In this plane view, the color-coding of the bit icons indicates number of bits in the slice of the cube. In short, the plane view is like a thin section of a solid material. In real-time, the user may move the displayed plane closer (decreased Z) or further (increased Z) from the observer with simple keyboard inputs (+, -).

Fig. 2 is a snapshot of "Tick 520" where each HotSpot Tick consists of four binary mechanics ticks, one for each bit motion type. For this experiment, the execution of these "sub-ticks" were ordered unconditional, vector, scalar and strong. The first three are all intra-dimensional while the strong force alone produces inter-dimensional bit motion. Recall that integer space coordinate parity plays a big role in binary mechanics. For example, even parity defines positive mite charge while odd parity defines negative charge. Hence, positron spot 000 has three positive mites and electron spot 111 has three negative mites. The intra- and inter-dimensional forces might similarly correspond to some sort of tick parity.

Moving to the text display on the right, we have 32768 spots in this cube of space (32^3) with 24576 bytes of bit locations, which is the 6 of 8 bits used in each 2d-side cube occupied by each spot [2].

The Loci, Bits and Rand values record initial state (Tick = 0) parameters. Loci has 8 bit flags indicating which spots (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111) may be initialized with bits (mites or lites). Bits contains 8 bit flags, one each for the 8 types listed above as icons (2 mites and 6 lites). The 255 value for both Loci and Bits records that all possible loci and bits were enabled for seeding the initial state. Rand, when not zero, indicates the probability of seeding a bit. In the experiment shown, the initial bit density was 0.25.

At start up, if Radius is set to zero, HotSpot asks for an XYZ range which can be seeded with bits. This range may vary from a single spot (e.g., 1,1,1,1,1,1 for one electron spot) to the entire simulated cube of space shown in Fig. 2 (X0, X1, etc).

In summary, the Tick 0 initial state may vary from a single bit to maximum bit density in the selected sub-space.

During an experiment, simple keyboard inputs can alter in real-time which bit types are displayed: mites or lites or both (as in this experiment -- "Mites & Lites"). It is also possible to display leptons or quarks or both and photonic lites or gluonic lites or both. The reverse video line records that all bits are displayed in the experiment shown at Tick 520 ("Lep Qua Pho Glu"). Regardless of which bit types are displayed, the data and analysis in the rest of the text is based on all bits in the simulated space.

The Mech parameter is five bit flags indicating which bit operations are enabled. The flag bits are 1, Unconditional bit motion; 2, Scalar force; 4, Vector force; 8, Strong force; and 16, Gravity. These bit operations may be turned on and off in real-time with simple keyboard inputs. The "Mech 15" value records that all bit operations are on, except Gravity is off.

The gravity section of the original BM paper [1] is perhaps the most speculative. For the present early simulation work, the gravity bit operation is therefore turned off. Also, in the present HotSpot version, the Scalar bit operation has been changed from mutual mite annihilation as proposed in the original BM paper to motion of the two concurrent mite bits to their respective spot unit lites.The Look parameter contains flags controlling the simulated space display. "Look 7" records that mites (flag bit 0 = 1) and lites (flag bit 1 = 2) are displayed in a plane view (flag bit 2 = 4).

The Opt parameter (which is zero in Fig. 2) indicates various options. For example, HotSpot can turn on or off several options including Box (all emitted bits are reflected back into the corresponding spots from which they came on subsequent Ticks) and Left and/or Right Guns (which "fire" bits into the simulated space).

**A Binary Mechanics Experiment**

Fig. 2 and 3 show snapshots of a BM experiment.

L, Q, P and G are densities for lepton mites, quark mites, photonic lites and gluonic lites respectively. m and l values are total mite and lite densities where m = L + Q and l = P + G. Density d = m + l and is the total bit density. d seems to indicate the total energy in the simulated space cube. In the Tick 520 snapshot shown, d has declined to 0.09 from the initial approximate 0.25 level ("Rand 0.25"). This decline is due to bits exiting the simulated space cube, shown by the * value, which is a bit current measure (number of bits exiting / space cube surface area).

An obvious result is that high bit densities represent unstable states which tend to distribute bits (energy) to surrounding space until a stable (near base) energy state is achieved. A number of experiments (not shown) presently suggest that this base state for the entire simulated space cube (no more bits emitted) is achieved at a bit density of approximately 0.05 for Dim = 32 simulated spaces.

This emitted "material" (mites) and "radiation" (lites) is analyzed in the left histogram "Spectrum 2" where 2 designates the number of simulation Ticks per histogram bar. As experiments proceed, these histograms may match known spectrums, which would help determine the value(s) of fundamental constants t and d mentioned above in seconds and meters respectively.

The blue reverse video m, l, * and E values are the bit counts associated with the m, l, * and d densities above. E = m + l. In this Tick 520, 17 bits exited the simulated cube (*).

The lite/mite (l/m) and lepton/quark (L/Q) ratios are also tabulated. In an initial state (Tick 0) with completely random bit seeding, l/m approximates 1.00 and L/Q approximates 0.33, since there are three quark spots for each lepton spot (positron or electron). At Tick 520 in the present experiment, l/m equals 0.517 indicating loss of lites is greater than loss of mites among bits that exit the space. In short, most bits that exit the space are lites. On the other hand, the L/Q ratio has increased from a nominal initial value of 0.33 to 0.509, indicating that bits initially seeded to quark spots tend to travel to lepton spots, at least where the initial state (Rand 0.25) is apparently high energy as described above.

Q is the net charge of all the mite bits in the space and each unit represents a plus or minus charge of 1/3. That is, Q/3 would appear to represent the conventional definition of the charge Q. In a random initial state, Q approximates zero, since the number of positive mites (

**pits**) would approximately equal the number of negative mites (

**nits**). However, at Tick 520, Q is -2006, confirming our expectation that electron spots capture bits while positron spots tend to distribute bits to other spots (antimatter quarks)[2].

Hence, the increase in the L/Q ratio over time is largely accounted for by more bits in electron spots (labeled "e-L").

The G (gravity), V (Vector), S (Scalar) and F (Strong) force densities are based on the number of bit motions per tick. G is zero, since Mech 15 indicates that Gravity bit operations are off. The Scalar bit operation (S) incidence is much lower than observed in the earlier Ticks in the experiment. Since the Scalar potential is defined as juxtaposed mites of like charge Q in concurrent spot units, this observed reduction in the S value indicates that the bit operation does work in the sense that the Scalar potential occurs less often, indicating reduced incidence of like charged mites close to each other in concurrent spot units.

The lines with blue and purple labels are bit counts. The blue labels list eight spots with the four matter spots on the left and the four antimatter spots on the right. By Tick 520, clearly the bits located in matter spots outnumber those in antimatter spots.

The purple bit counts EdR and EdL, where dR and dL indicate matter and antimatter d quarks respectively, sum the number of bits in their three quarks if the bit count for each of the three is non-zero. This is a crude accounting attempt to begin evaluating the number of matter and antimatter nucleons.

The result at Tick 520 is that EdR bits outnumber EdL bits, whereas in early Ticks of a random bit distribution these values would be approximately equal.

In the 1994 BM paper, the Standard Model was generally accepted. In the BM treatment, a u quark is viewed as a combination of bits in both a d quark spot and a lepton spot (positron for matter and electron for antimatter). With this treatment it may be seen that the EdR and EdL tabulations are a reasonable starting point since in any case a nucleon would consist of at least three d quarks (all R or all L). In short, a precise BM definition of "what is a nucleon that is directly observable in physical experiment?" is pending.Finally, the average bit position in the X (r1), Y (r2) and Z (r3) directions are displayed. The respective p values represent the momentum per Tick on each coordinate axis computed by comparing present and previous Tick positions. A listing of this data over selected intervals might be used to calculate angular momentum in an experiment.

Considering the intracube bit loop for protons [3], it might also be noted that even for the matter proton (or any nucleon), bits cycle through antimatter quark spots, which would therefore not be expected to show zero bit counts even if the spot cube contained a proton.

**Fig. 3: Tick 2804 Plane View From Random Initial Bit State**

By Tick 2804 (Fig. 3), it is evident that the trends identified clearly at Tick 520 or even much earlier in the time development have continued. Net charge Q is much more negative associated with a high electron bit count (e-L), even though total bit count has decreased further as energy is radiated into surrounding space.

The BM bit operations have also dramatically redistributed bits to favor matter spots over antimatter spots. Further, the EdR bit count is now 10 times greater than the EdL count. It might appear that we are indeed on the road to creating nucleons, not to mention a huge number of "free" electrons, and to providing an explanation for observed matter/antimatter asymmetry in physical experiments. It should be clear that one has to pump a whole lot of bits into a relatively small volume of space in order to produce antiparticles.

By Tick 2804, the Scalar potentials and associated bit motions have dropped to zero or nearly so (yellow "S" value). On the face of it, it appears that the BM scalar bit operations are doing the job of increasing distance between mites with like charge.

It may also be noteworthy that Vector potentials and associated bit motions have actually increased comparing Tick 520 and 2804 (yellow "V" value), even though total bit (energy) density is much lower. In short, the per-bit incidence of the vector operations actually increases as energy level (total number of bits) decreases in the simulated space. This appears to agree with the idea in conventional physics thinking that a "magnetic" property is intrinsic to particles even when at low or base energy states.

It may be evident that the rate of bit emission into surrounding space diminishes over time. While watching a HotSpot run for an experiment such as this, one sees huge bursts of exiting bits ocurring at intervals representing a rapid dispersion of energy from the simulated space.

The density histogram shows a tendency for bits to move to higher coordinate axis locations, a spatial asymmetry which may be worrisome. However, the histogram scaling may visually overemphasise the asymmetry, since comparing Figs. 2 and 3, the average position r1, r2, r3 is about 32 at Tick 520 and only about 33 at Tick 2804. In other words, this change in average position is only about one distance d after over 2,000 Ticks. [The r1, r2, and r3 values are scaled in distance d units.]

Below the histograms, the mean and standard deviation of the interval bars is displayed. Considering the low standard deviation in the density histogram, much of this spatial asymmetry appears to be statistically significant.

This unwanted asymmetry observation may be due to "border artifacts", since the present simulation has in effect assumed that the spots at higher-coordinate borders (bottom of the density histogram) behave the same as spots with lower-coordinate borders (top of the density histogram) when bit loops cannot be completed as bits are "lost" by exiting the simulated space.

A further factor may be that electron spots (at higher coordinates) accumulate bits while positron spots (at lower coordinates) distribute bits, many of which are "lost" by moving outside the simulated space. This factor alone would tend to deplete bits at lower coordinates (top of the density histogram).

**Summary**

This article introduces HotSpot BM simulation software. A continuing task is to clean up the source code and perhaps package modules (e.g., the engine) in a library, which other programmers can use to develop and run their own BM experiments beyond the current capabilities of HotSpot. While getting the BM laws exactly right so correct results are consistently produced is the top priority, eventually a GUI Windows interface may be more user-friendly and versatile in displaying results.

Results of the experiment reported are encouraging to the extent that basic physical phenomenon seem to be evident. Some worrisome aspects of the results may indicate that one or more BM bit operations may not be exactly right and/or that possible simulation artifacts need to be addressed.

**References**

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.

[2] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation binary mechanics space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.

[3] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics electron, positron and proton" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010

© 2011 James J Keene