Wednesday, February 10, 2016

GRACE: Gravity Surface Temperature Dependence

Abstract and Introduction
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) consists of twin satellites launched in March 2002 to make "detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field which will lead to discoveries about gravity" [1]. This report presents two such discoveries which provide additional confirmation of the prediction that object surface temperature increases gravitational force [2] [3], originally discovered with lunar laser ranging and lunar orbit perigee data [4]. First, comparing 13 years (2003 - 2015) of GRACE ocean data subtracting the coldest month (January) from the warmest month (July) in the northern hemisphere, GRACE showed greater gravity in the northern hemisphere when warmer (Fig. 1, right) and decreased gravity in the southern hemisphere when cooler (Fig. 1, left). Second, the product-moment correlation of the average GRACE ocean gravity measurements and ocean surface temperature (SST) over the available latitude data range was 0.697, suggesting that about one half (49%) of GRACE gravity measures in fact reflect ocean surface temperature, as predicted.

Methods and Results

Fig. 1: GRACE Gravity (July minus January mean, sem) vs Latitude

Are gravity measurements the same in the hottest versus coldest months? GRACE ocean data was chosen to perhaps simplify the analysis, eliminating to some extent complications evident in the land data points. Using Center for Space Research (CSR) files, thirteen years (2003 to 2015) of monthly GRACE ocean data [5] were averaged for each one degree of latitude over all available longitudinal ocean data points. The N for each latitude mean ranged from 325 at -84 latitude to 4680 at 89 latitude; the median N was 3192 for each latitude mean in the warmer and cooler month data sets. For each year, the northern hemisphere warmest (July) and coolest (January) months were processed with several exceptions: December, 2003 (not January, 2004), December, 2010 (not January, 2011) and June, 2014 (not July, 2014). Hence, two sets of GRACE gravity measurements as a function of latitude were obtained: warmest and coolest months. To evaluate the effect of temperature when the gravity measurements in each set were collected, a composite milligal variable was simply the difference between the two data sets for each latitude (Fig. 1, mean and sem).

Below -42 latitude, gravity measurements were less during colder southern hemisphere months as predicted. Above 36 latitude, three peaks in milligals were found, starting at 36, 65 and 79 latitudes. Above 79 latitude, gravity measurements were greater during the warmer northern hemisphere months as predicted.

GRACE gravity and ocean surface temperature. Another way to evaluate the surface temperature dependence of GRACE gravity measurements is simply direct comparison of the GRACE data and independently collected ocean surface temperature data. Fig. 2 shows the average of the hot and cold monthly GRACE data -- (July + January)/2.

Fig. 2: GRACE Gravity (July and January mean, sem) vs Latitude


The "dome" shape between -76 latitude and 64 latitude in the GRACE data may be matched with available sea surface temperature (SST) data [6] [7] in the -64 to 64 latitude range (Fig. 3), over four years (2012 - 2015) again averaging the hottest and coolest months as described above. The product-moment (Pearson) correlation is 0.697 (N = 129). Hence, about one half of the variance of the ocean GRACE gravity measurements (0.49 = 0.6972) in fact reflects ocean surface temperature, according to the SST data.

Fig. 3: GHRSST Ocean Temperature vs Latitude


Discussion
Two analyses presented provide additional confirmation of the hypothesis that gravitational force depends on object surface temperature [2], previously confirmed by lunar laser ranging and lunar orbit perigee data [4].

First, GRACE gravity measurements during hottest months compared to colder months revealed significant differences supporting the hypothesis (Fig. 1). In the southern hemisphere, gravitational force was markedly reduced when measured in colder months as predicted. In the northern hemisphere, the data was not as clean, but did confirm the hypothesis that gravitational force was greater when measured during increased seasonal surface temperatures.

Second, independently obtained GHRSST ocean surface temperature data was directly correlated with GRACE gravitational force measurements. Remarkably, about one half of the GRACE gravity variance was found to be accounted for by ocean surface temperature, further supporting the hypothesis. Hence, GRACE data reflects ocean surface temperature as much as it may reflect something called "gravity".

In summary, this report doubles the empirical data sets supporting the hypothesis that increased surface temperature increases gravitational force between objects: (1) lunar laser ranging, (2) lunar orbit perigee, (3) seasonal temperature during GRACE gravity ocean measurements and (4) correlation with GHRSST ocean surface temperature.

The hypothesis originated from a law of motion [8] based on binary mechanics fundamentals [9]. One consequence is that physics may now have its first credible model of how gravity-like effects work, namely that all else equal, objects tend to move in the direction of greater 1-state bit density and the "gravitational attraction" effect between pairs of objects is caused by the fact that bit density between the objects will be greater than in any other direction. Surface temperature enters the picture since it relates to the amount of 1-state bits an object will radiate from its surface affecting bit density between objects.

Einstein was correct to assert that gravity was not a primary force, in agreement with binary mechanics [10]. Ironically, perhaps the majority of physicists currently ignore where Einstein was right (gravity not primary force). Fortunately, where Einstein endowed mass with miraculous abilities to curve space-time can be easily fixed. That is, inertial motion tends to proceed in the direction of greatest 1-state bit density based on relatively simple underlying physical mechanisms of motion.

References
[1] Center for Space Research, Univ. Texas. "GRACE: gravity recovery and climate experiment" October, 2015.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Physics glossary" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Physics news: gravity game-changer" J. Bin. Mech. October, 2014.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Gravity increased by lunar surface temperature differential" J. Bin. Mech. August, 2011.
[5] Jet Propulsion Lab. NASA. "Tellus L3 ocean_mass RL05 data" January, 2016.
[6] Jet Propulsion Lab. NASA. "Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST)" January, 2016.
[7] Jet Propulsion Lab. NASA. "Aquarius L3 mapped V4 28day_running SCI" January, 2016.
[8] Keene, J. J. "A law of motion" J. Bin. Mech. September, 2011.
[9] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[10] Keene, J. J. "Fundamental forces in physics" J. Bin. Mech. October, 2014.
© 2016 James J Keene