**Abstract and Introduction**

Matter creation based on electron and proton counts was examined after a simulated volume cooled to zero degrees Kelvin as a function of initial energy density. Findings include (1) lowest matter creation occurred starting from maximum energy density (1.0) and "perfect vacuum" density (0.1), (2) greatest matter creation was produced when starting from 0.3 energy density and (3) the SUVF bit operations order produced the greatest matter creation, compared to the VSUF and SVUF orders.

**Background**

Studies using the boosted energies of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN may provide only a primitive, keyhole view of possible events in the entire energy density range from absolute vacuum to absolute maximum energy density.

**Absolute vacuum**and

**absolute maximum energy density**are consequences of quantization of space and energy in binary mechanics (BM) [1] aka "full quantum mechanics". Energy was quantized by limiting spatial objects called

**bit loci**to 0-states or 1-states. Then, absolute vacuum could be defined as a volume with all 0-state bit loci [2]. Note that so-called "perfect vacuum" may contain up to about 10% 1-state bit loci and is therefore not "empty space" (e.g., [3]). At the other extreme, absolute maximum energy density is achieved with all bit loci in a volume in the 1-state. The BM system state, named the

**bit function**, is the spatial distribution of 1- and 0-state bits. With space and time quantization, infinitesimal operators in "partial quantum mechanics" (QM) were not applicable mathematically. Thus, four

**bit operations**-- unconditional (U), scalar (S), vector (V) and strong (F), were based on relativistic Dirac spinor equations [1] [4] implementing time-development of the system state. Since results depend on bit operations order, only one order can be physically correct [5].

**Methods and Results**

The Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) [6] simulated a 48x48x48 spot volume [7] with Vacuum mode (Box and Rnd modes off) and Expt. 9, similar to methods described previously [8]. In Vacuum mode, energy radiating from the simulated volume (Outbits in .cvs output file) was lost as if this volume was located in absolute vacuum. Thus, initial 1-state bit density in the simulated volume gradually decreased to a final density (Fig. 1). In Expt. 9, the final density was defined by a sequence of 42 BMLS Ticks with zero Outbits, which terminates the run.

Outbits may represent particles in motion or electromagnetic (EM) radiation leaving the simulated volume. When this process completes, the system state (bit function) in the simulated volume is deemed to have "cooled" to zero degrees Kelvin. The protocol was run for each of three bit operation orders (SUVF, VSUF, SVUF) which produced matter creation in a previous report [3]. For each bit operations order, ten simulations were run with initial densities ranging from 0.1 to 1.0.

**Fig. 1: Final Density Depends On Initial Density**

Legend: Initial and final energy densities as proportions of maximum density. Bit operations: U, unconditional; S, scalar; V, vector; F, strong. Bit operation orders: SUVF, VSUF, SVUF.

In Fig. 1 (left), the lowest final densities occurred with initial density at maximum energy density (1.0) and at "perfect vacuum" density (0.1). The greatest final density was found with 0.3 initial density. Fig. 1 (right) shows that the Final / Initial Density Ratio increased as initial density decreased. That is, at lower initial densities, fewer 1-state bits exited the simulated volume as Outbits, probably mostly as EM radiation (heat).

The BMLS particle threshold was 2 (the default BMLS T parameter), indicating an operational definition of a particle where a count required at least two (2 or 3) of the three mite (M) bits in a spot to be in the 1-state for one-spot particles such as the electron (e-L in output file, Table 1 in [1]). A proton count required that all three right-handed down (d) quark spots each met the foregoing particle count criterion (EdR in output file). These counts may be expressed as proportions with N = 24

^{3}= 13824 as the maximum possible count equal to the number of spot cubes [7] in a simulation.

**Fig. 2: Electron (e-L) and Proton (EdR) Counts vs Initial Density**

Legend: Energy density as proportion of maximum density. Particle counts: electron (e-L) and proton (EdR). Bit operations: U, uncoditional; S, scalar; V, vector; F, strong. Bit operation orders: SUVF, VSUF, SVUF.

Fig. 2 shows that greatest matter creation for protons/nucleons (EdR) was produced when starting from 0.3 initial energy density for all three bit operation orders tested. Final density electron (e-L) counts were also greatest with initial density 0.3 for the SUVF bit operations order. In contrast, final electron counts were greatest with initial density 0.2 for the VSUF and SVUF orders.

The SUVF bit operations order produced the greatest matter creation, compared to the VSUF and SVUF orders. As initial density was decreased in simulations from 0.9 down to 0.3, matter creation generally increased.

**Discussion**

*Matter Creation: The Sequel.*A previous report showed that only the SUVF, VSUF and SVUF bit operation orders produced matter creation defined by electron and proton counts greater than expected values with random 1-state bit distribution in the simulated volume [3]. In that study, initial energy density was near zero (absolute vacuum) and gradually increased with added randomly seeded 1-state bits over about 2000 BMLS Ticks. In each Tick, the four bit operations were applied. Those results helped establish that

**matter-antimatter asymmetry could be accounted for by ongoing, real-time processes in the present**[9].

In the present study, the dependent variables included electron and proton counts examined after a decrease in energy (1-state bit) density to zero degrees Kelvin as a function of initial energy density. Instead of gradually increasing energy density as in the previous study, this report looked at matter particle counts after a decrease in energy density. Hence, the research question was how initial energy density affected matter particle creation, which requires that the time-evolution bit operations concentrate randomly distributed energy into the small-volume spot locations used to operationally define a particle.

Perhaps the major finding was that

**simple matter particles such as electrons and protons (or neutrons) were created most at somewhat low energy densities**, peaking in the present data at 0.3 initial energy density with the SUVF bit operations order (Fig. 2). This result may be consistent with the ideas that creation of simpler particles may occur at lower energy densities but that nucleosynthesis of higher-Z atomic nuclei requires much higher energy density events. Alas, BMLS software does not presently detect multi-nucleon particles.

The present data replicated several findings. First, Fig. 1 (left) agrees with final densities as a function of initial density in the 0.0 to 0.4 range (Fig. 1 in [8]). Second, the VSUF bit operation order was found to be superior to the SVUF order in electron and proton particle creation (Figs. 3 and 4 in [8]). Finally, the SUVF order surpassed both the VSUF and SVUF orders in the present report, consistent with Fig. 3 in [3] which highlighted proton particle incidence near proton creation threshold in the 0.1 to 0.2 density range.

Why would increasing initial densities produce fewer simple matter particles assessed after cooling? The increments in initial energy density may have interfered with simple matter particle creation and then dissipated as EM radiation exiting the simulated volume. Did the results of least matter creation at absolute maximum initial energy density (1.0) illustrate maximum matter creation interference? Notice that at 1.0 initial density, there is zero complexity in the simulated volume. Hence, low or no complexity might explain in part the lowest matter creation at 1.0 initial density. In addition, at maximum density (1.0), EM forces are absent (not possible) [4]. Hence, temperature also reaches zero Kelvin at absolute maximum energy density. These considerations suggest that EM forces may be essential in simple matter creation.

*Bit Operations Order.*The one and only physically correct bit operations order must account for all known physical phenomena from gravity through classical mechanics to QM [5]. Among BM fundamental forces [4], two EM forces are defined -- the electrostatic, scalar (S) bit operation and the magnetic, vector (V) bit operation, while legacy QM treats these as one EM force. The BM treatment suggests that the S and V order must be critical to fully account for certain, perhaps as yet unknown, EM phenomena. Thus far, it may appear that this order does not matter, since partial QM assumes the electrostatic and magnetic effects act simultaneously and the author is not aware of anybody complaining about this. Hence, the search is on for a phenomenon involving EM forces that behaves in some manner, however slightly, different than quantum electrodynamic predictions.

The VSUF and SVUF bit operation orders simply swap the order of the scalar (S) and vector (V) operations, generally emphasizing the effects of the operation that is applied first. In contrast, the SUVF order separates the two EM operations by an unconditional (U) operation, which may act to diminish the dominance of one EM operation over the other.

**References**

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.

[2] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.

[3] Keene, J. J. "Matter creation" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2016.

[4] Keene, J. J. "Fundamental forces in physics" J. Bin. Mech. October, 2014.

[5] Keene, J. J. "Bit operations order" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.

[6] Keene, J. J. "Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator update" J. Bin. Mech. December, 2015.

[7] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.

[8] Keene, J. J. "Zero degrees Kelvin" J. Bin. Mech. January, 2016.

[9] Keene, J. J. "Matter-antimatter asymmetry mechanism" J. Bin. Mech. October, 2014.

© 2016 James J Keene