Saturday, April 11, 2015

Proton And Electron Bit Cycles

Analysis of the proton [1] [2] and electron [3] bit cycles (Fig. 1) has revealed that the bit positions in these two cycles account for all possible bit positions according to the postulates of binary mechanics (BM) [4] and a physical interpretation of BM space [3]. Hence, in addition to the four fundamental bit operations which determine exact time-development of system states, a new constraint on BM as a physical theory is that physical mechanisms for observed phenomena may typically involve one or both of these cycles. In tests of this new constraint, bit motion within and between no more than two different bit cycles -- proton and electron -- would hypothetically account for all observable physical events.

Fig. 1: Proton and Electron Bit Cycles

Legend: Six 1-state bit positions in electron cycle (yellow). 42 1-state bit positions in proton cycle. Matter d quarks (dark red, green, blue); anti-matter d quarks (light red, green, blue). Positron positions (grey). Arrows (purple) indicate bit motion direction and results of the strong bit operation [5]. The unconditional bit operation (black) accounts for all motion between color-coded spot types. XYZ positions shown without commas: e.g., 013 is {0,1,3}.
Each bit position is illustrated at the center of its cubic bit locus of size d, the fundamental BM length constant determined to be approximately 0.6 fm based on nuclear scattering data [6] and its use in the first-ever calculation of Planck's constant h from a comprehensive, fundamental physical theory [7]. A spot cube contains physical representation of the eight elementary particles -- 2 leptons (electron, positron) and 6 d quarks (3 matter R-handed d quarks; 3 antimatter L-handed d quarks). In Fig. 1, the "home" spot cube for the proton cycle contains points in the {0-3, 0-3, 0-3} range.

In the home spot cube range, the three matter d quarks each have six bit positions, whereas the antimatter d quarks have 4 bit positions. Further, the positron spot in the home cube (not shown) does not participate in the proton cycle.

As reported [8], non-spherical proton shape is due in part to proton cycle positions in three spot cubes adjacent to the home cube. These positions are {4, Y, Z}, {X, 4, Z} and {X, Y, 4} and each corresponds to two points in the positron spot and two points in each L-handed d quark. It may be noteworthy that all of these points outside the home cube correspond to representation of anti-matter particles.

Notice that the positron spot in the home spot cube (not shown) would participate in three proton cycles in three adjacent spot cubes.

In sum, each of the eight spots in a spot cube contains six bit positions and all possible positions are occupied by the proton or electron bit cycles. In conclusion, it appears that only two types of bit cycles exist -- proton and electron. Is it any wonder that the physical world appears to be composed of protons, electrons and neutrons (both proton and electron)?

Fig. 2 shows a similar image where the electron cycle is removed from its context in the home spot cube.

Fig. 2: Proton and Electron Bit Cycles

Legend: Same as Fig. 1.
Discussion
Hadron phenomena scope. As stated previously, "the 42 bit loci positions in the central baryon bit cycle may be occupied by zero to 42 1-state bits at a time tick t. That is, there are 242 possible states. These permutations may account for essentially all hadron phenomena including hadron resonances, energy levels, particle half-lives, particle time phase [9], particle categories, etc. Increasing the number of 1-state bits in the central baryon bit cycle increases energy level and the density images but does not change proton size" [8].

New research program. What investigative approach would most likely produce the most advances in nuclear physics per budget dollar? One top priority research program might be to itemize all hadron states that occur naturally as a function of various variables, such as energy density. The basic plan might represent each of the possible states of the proton (hadron) cycle as a 42-bit binary number where each bit represents a 1-state bit in one of the 42 positions in the cycle. Using the Binary Mechanics Lab simulator, with an upcoming upgrade, the system state can be saved to a file by simply pressing the "S" key (save to file). Then software can analyze this data to count the instances of each possible 42-bit number. The most frequently occurring values represent the most common particles. Criteria may be developed to define the entire range of shorter lived particles hopefully including their half-lives. Further analysis might reveal exactly which bit configurations represent momentum or "particles in motion." These sorts of analysis could be done at different energy (bit) densities, to further elucidate "energy thresholds" for creation of particular objects. In short, one might well imagine that more advances in nuclear physics might be feasible in months with this sort of research program, than facilities like CERN might achieve in decades if ever. For example, the idea of boosting LHC beam energy to "discover" new particles seems primitive and completely trivial in comparison. If the LHC has any use at all, it might help confirm specific simulation results.

The author will be happy to collaborate with investigators interested in pursuing this sort of research program, providing software routines, data formats, etc, required.

Editor's note: The reader is invited to post comments in agreement or disagreement with this or other Journal of Binary Mechanics articles at the Binary Mechanics Forum. The Journal also welcomes on-topic articles from other investigators and persons considering serving on the Journal's editorial board.

References
[1] Keene, J. J. "Non-zero proton electric dipole moment" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2015.
[2] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[6] Krane, K. S., Introductory Nuclear Physics, Wiley, 1987.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Intrinsic electron spin and fundamental constants" J. Bin. Mech. January, 2015.
[8] Keene, J. J. "Non-spherical proton shape" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2015.
[9] Keene, J. J. "Particle up-down spin and quantized time parity" J. Bin. Mech. January, 2015.
© 2015 James J Keene