Monday, December 14, 2015

Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator Update

The Binary Mechanics Lab Simulator (BMLS) software has been updated. Fig. 1 shows a screen shot of a "laser" experiment. Basic information has been presented previously [1], and might best be consulted first. In addition, further evidence is presented that light velocity c equals bit velocity v / π.
Fig. 1: BMLS Screen Shot

Basic Display
A cube of space is simulated. The display consists of "icons" representing 2d cubes called spots, where d is the fundamental length constant, presently reckoned to be approximately 0.6 femtometer. For the 48x48x48 spot cube shown, integer coordinates by spot location range from left X = -24, top Y = -24 and near Z = -24 to right X = 23, bottom Y = 23 and far Z = 23.

Fig. 1 shows a "plane view" of this space at a controllable depth along the Z axis. Pressing the X key during a run changes to an "X-ray view", without affecting processing or recording data, which is often preferable.
For some recent Windows versions, one may need to set the proper "raster" font to correctly display all characters. With the program running, right-click on the program icon and select "properties" and then select "font". Then choose "8x8" size and "Raster fonts" and then click "OK". Incidentally, the BMLS software does not alter the Windows registry.
Qe is the count of negative 1-state mite (fermion) bits; Qp is the count of positive 1-state mite bits; and Q = (Qe + Qp) / 3.

The "particle counts" (light blue reverse video) for the eight elementary particles (matter: e-L, drR, dgR, dbR; antimatter: e+R, drL, dgL, dbL) reflect the "particle threshold" (T=2 in Fig. 1), presently defined as number of 1-state mite bits in a spot required to reach particle threshold. Pressing the T key changes the threshold to T=3, where fewer particles occur, and then to T=1, where more particles are counted. With T=3, pressing the E or P keys displays an interesting view of electrons or nucleons in the X-ray and Solid display modes. During a run, changing particle threshold T alters the particle count data recorded in output files.

r1, r2 and r3 are the centers of all 1-state bits with reference to the center of the simulated cube, with d1, d2 and d3 showing the standard deviations in the three spatial dimensions respectively. e1, e2 and e3 and their standard deviations show similar position information for electron (e-L) spots only. These r and e values are expressed in units of d.
[Updated Dec 18, 2015] The BMLS v1.37.8 download has several tweaks. Instead of counting all 1-state bits, now r1, r2 and r3 count only proton cycle bits and are thus mutually exclusive to e1, e2 and e3, which continue to count electron cycle bits [3]. Together, all 1-state bits are counted. A potentially important initial observation is that these position vectors may change ("move") considerably, opening the door for design of studies of motion. For example, it appears that a correlation between the proton (r) and electron (e) positions over time for each dimention (i = 1, 2, 3) may indicate presence of objects such as atoms. That is, electrons tend to follow motion of protons, or visa versa. Given the opposite net charge of the proton and electron bit cycles, the r and e position vectors may also quantify degrees of polarization or ionization.
There are several new tabulations. First, the *xL, *xR, *yL, *yR, *zL, *zR values itemize the total 1-state bits leaving the simulated space (the * count called "outbits") for the six cube faces. Second, the next six values are counts of all 1-state lite (boson) bits in each of their six possible directions (two in each of 3 dimensions). Third, in the output *.cvs file, the four energy distributions as a function of overall bit density are recorded (e-L, e+R, dR and dL), as reported previously [2].

As this line of research progresses, the proposed new research program described previously [3] may well provide much more accurate means to define "particle thresholds" and the like, compared to some of the tabulations described above. Toward that end, the S key will save the simulated data cube at any point in a program run, so these files may be analyzed as proposed.

Basic Operation Modes
1. Vacuum Mode. What if there is nothing surrounding the simulated volume? That nothing is called "absolute vacuum" [4]. In this mode, all 1-state bits leaving the simulated space are "lost" and thus the bit density (d in the right panel) will decrease until all EM radiation is dissipated (S and V counts for the the scalar and vector bit operations are zero, including KE = S + V), where zero degrees Kelvin temperature is apparently realized. At this point, all particle motion ceases. However, 1-state bits remain in motion trapped in their respective proton and electron bit cycles [3]. Note that particle motion requires 1-state bits to be emitted from a cycle which is synonymous with absorption of these bits by another cycle (in an adjacent location).

For a quick start running the simulator, just cancel the file input dialog and press the Enter key for each prompt until it starts running with default values.

2. Box Mode. What if the sides of the simulated cubic space were perfectly reflective? Box mode is an attempt in that direction, where each bit exiting the simulated space is returned in the next Tick to the spot unit [5] which is adjacent and counter-current to the emitting spot unit. An advantage of box mode is that a relatively stable bit density is maintained in the simulated space, compared to the decrease in bit density in vacuum mode. On the other hand, it appears that standing waves may occur and affect the spectrum of emission from the simulated space, which can complicate or obscure the spectral features examined in spectrography.

3. Random Mode. What if one wants to do spectrographic analysis of the emitted 1-state bits or other experiments over a period where bit density is relatively constant? Random mode is a new feature which may be useful. Imagine the simulated volume is located in a space of similar bit density. In Random mode, enough 1-state bits are randomly injected at random locations on the six faces of the simulated volume to maintain a relatively constant bit density. Hopefully, standing waves that may occur in box mode would not affect emissions from the simulated volume, providing opportunity to do frequency analysis of its "outbit" emissions. Perhaps a priority in these sorts of investigations would be detection of hydrogen or helium by recording their characteristic spectral lines.

Bit Guns
The right and left bit guns provide a means to inject 1-state bits into the simulated volume. When turned on, the centered, square gun injects one bit into spots occupying an area which is 1/4 of the simulated cube side area. For example, with DIM = 48 (the default), 24 x 24 spots are in the gun emission area. Only half of these spots would contain spot units in the X dimension pointing left for the "left gun" (located on the right side) or right for the "right gun" (located on the left side). Hence, in each Tick, a bit gun injects (24 x 24) / 2 1-state bits. This information along with detected signal strength over given distances can be used to duplicate the familiar inverse square law of radiation intensity [Keene, in preparation].

Programmed Experiments
1. Laser. Fig. 1 shows Tick 500 of the "laser" experiment (Ex=1). It remains to be seen to what extent the laser label is appropriate, but here is what it does. The top and bottom of the simulation are in box mode to "reflect" radiation and the other four sides are run in random mode to inject energy into the system, much like simple lasers are designed. In addition, the histogram is limited to the vertical Y dimension, perhaps to show waves of 1-state bits.

Fig. 2: BMLS "Laser" Exeriment (detail from Fig. 1)

Notice that the directionality of radiation emission is enhanced in the Y dimension (see *yL and *yR in Fig. 1), compared to the X and Z dimensions. Also, in the Y "laser coherence" direction, 1-state bit position (r2) is closer to zero than r1 and r3, and the r2 standard deviation (d2) is greater than the d1 and d3 deviations. It may also be noteworthy that 1-state electron (e-L) position is closer to zero (center of simulated volume) in the Y dimension (e2) than in the X (e1) and Z (e3) directions. While the r2 standard deviation is greater than the r1 and r3 values, the e2 standard deviation is less than the e1 and e3 standard deviations. Futher, in the "non-coherent" directions (X and Z), the r1 and r3 positions are shifted to the left (negative) while, in contrast, the e1 and e3 positions are shifted to the right (positive). Do any of these effects reflect detail about laser processes and generation?

These effects (Figs. 1, 2) represent one trial. However, effects repeated over many runs with different random initial states reach any desired level of statistical significance according to the binomial distribution and the number of runs.

2. Bit Density. This experiment gradually increases bit density which has been used to study vacuum thresholds [4], particle energy distributions as a function of bit density [2], and absolute maximum temperature [6].

3. and 4. Light Velocity. Experiments 3 and 4 may provide a better method to measure light velocity compared to the methodology in a previous report [7]. In these experiments, a "pulse" in energy is injected by the left-pointing or right-pointing bit gun over a 21 Tick period and the "bit sensors" on the opposite side of the simulated volume (the *xL or *xR values respectively) are used to determine transit time in Ticks, comparing similar runs with and without the signal (Fig 3).

Two fundamental constants in binary mechanics are quantized length d and quantized time t (called a tick). A 1-state bit may move only one unit of length in one tick. d and t may be used to define bit velocity v = d / t. The hypothesis that light velocity c equals v / π (from eq. 2 in [8]) was supported by data in a previous report [7].

Table 1: Light Transit Time in Ticks vs BMLS DIM

Table 1 shows the relation between BMLS DIM setting and light transit time across the simulated volume in simulator Ticks, where each Tick equals 4t, one tick for each fundamental time-development bit operation [9]. For a range of DIM values, the side-to-side distance in d units is listed. Expressed in units of bit velocity with light speed equal to 1 / π, the transit time in Ticks is calculated based on the expressions above. Noting that only integer values of the Tick measure of time are allowed, the "Error" column shows the ratio of the predicted Tick transit times with their respective measurable integer Tick values. If calculated Ticks is rounded up, DIM =56 is nearly equal to 88 Ticks.

Noting that DIM = 72 provides a close approximation for an integer Tick count for light transit time across the simulated volume, the current v1.37.7 version and the hypothesis were tested with Experiment 3 above with DIM = 72 and bit density = 0.2 of maximum possible density. Details of the methodology were described in a previous report [7]. Bits were injected on the right side of the volume with the bit detectors on the left side (outbit component *xL). Fig. 3 shows that the first peak in the arriving wave form was located at Tick 113, the value predicted by the hypothesis and enumerated in Table 1.

Fig. 3: Light Transit Time in Ticks for BMLS DIM = 72

"Baby, I'm For Real" (After 7). The BMLS may provide the most precise measurements of light speed as a function of various variables such as bit density from absolute vacuum to "perfect vacuum" (a so-called "vacuum energy density" range) on up to absolute maximum energy (1-state bit) density. What could be more precise than the ability to detect presence of a single bit of energy? The wave form detail shown in Fig. 3 (and in Fig. 1 in [7]) may be the "real deal" at the most precise level of analysis possible that investigators might best be examining, instead of the cartoon-like images of wave packets ("photons", "gluons") currently seen in legacy physics literature such as the textbooks and journals presently used by our students.

The present results add to a growing list of breakthroughs which seem to occur in any sub-specialty of physics examined in terms of binary mechanics fundamentals. Work in major physics labs continues to provide confirmation of hypotheses generated with binary mechanics, which appears to be the currently most successful physical theory, without even a single close competitor. For example, Binary Mechanics Lab thanks the ACME research group headquartered at Harvard for convincing confirmation of our prediction of zero electron electric dipole moment [10].

Many of these milestone results were based on the developing BMLS, which may be becoming the state-of-the-art simulation software in fundamental physics today. As such, simulation software used in quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is becoming, if not already, obsolete, soon to abandoned, as the Standard Model is upgraded with quantized space, time and energy "installed".

Editor's note: The reader is invited to post comments in agreement or disagreement with this or other Journal of Binary Mechanics articles at the Binary Mechanics Forum. The Journal also welcomes on-topic articles from other investigators and persons considering serving on the Journal's editorial board.

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics simulator updated" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Elementary particle energies" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2015.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Proton and electron bit cycles" J. Bin. Mech. April, 2015.
[4] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[6] Keene, J. J. "Absolute maximum temperature" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[7] Keene, J. J. "Light speed amendment" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2015.
[8] Keene, J. J. "Intrinsic electron spin and fundamental constants" J. Bin. Mech. January, 2015.
[9] Keene, J. J. "Fundamental forces in physics" J. Bin. Mech. October, 2014.
[10] Keene, J. J. "Zero electron electric dipole moment" J. Bin. Mech. January, 2015.
© 2015 James J Keene