Saturday, October 18, 2014

Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Mechanism

Matter and antimatter particles are thought to be composed of one or more of eight basic or "elementary" particles listed in the columns of Table 1 (partly from Table 1 in [1]).
Table 1: Spot cube data
In Table 1, four of these particles are matter (green) and the other four are antimatter (pink). However, widely accepted observations indicate that the known universe is composed almost completely of matter and that antimatter is very scarce. This situation is called "matter-antimatter asymmetry" which many physicists consider to be a major unsolved mystery. This report tries a solution to this problem by introducing data which reveals a real-time mechanism causing this asymmetry. Table 1 shows the 1-state bit transitions due to the strong bit operation (Fx, Fy, Fz) [2]. These values were summed for the mite counts before and after the strong bit operation for each elementary particle leading to the discovery that the strong bit operation increases mite count for matter particles and decreases mite count for antimatter particles. This paper presents the derivation and some implications of this finding.

From binary mechanics (BM) postulates to matter-antimatter asymmetry mechanism
A brief summary of the postulates of binary mechanics [1], derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, includes quantization of both space and time. First, the positive real components of the complex wave function are assigned to 2 bits, mite (M) and lite (L), in a spot unit (Fig. 1). Each bit occupies a spatial cube of size d, the fundamental BM length constant, and is further restricted to 0 or 1 values to quantify energy (Eq. 1 in [1]). Hence, the physical size of a spot unit is dxdx2d.
Fig. 1: Spot unit properties
In a physical interpretation of BM space [3], a 3-dimensional treatment defines spots composed of three spot units oriented in perpendicular directions (Eqs. 19, 20 in [1]). For example, Fig. 2 shows the positron spot (column 000 in Table 1). Spots occupy 2d cubes.
Fig. 2: Spot 000: Anti-matter positron (e+R)
Since space is quantized, the spot may be used to define an integer coordinate system where the coordinate modulo 2 parities (Eqs. 3, 4 in [1]) in row one of Table 1 are also the coordinates of eight spots comprising a spot cube, as shown in Fig. 3 (from [3]).
Fig. 3: Spot Cube
As presented previously [1], these position parities in BM space determine mite electric and color charges (Eq. 5, 29, 31-34 in [1]) and spot unit orientation (or lite direction) (Eq. 6 in [1]). The B(XYZ) rows in Table 1 show the component spot units with a symbolic visualization and with signed pairs of M and L zero or one values, which for any spatial volume filled with a lattice of spot cubes, is the state vector (Eq. 2 in [1]).

Table 1 lists the electric charge Q (Eqs. 5, 29 in [1]) which is one third of the spot mite sign sum. Of present interest, -Sign(Q) identifies which spot particles are matter (+1) and antimatter (-1). Further, Eqs. 31-34 in [1] identify the electron (e-L) and positron (e+R) as leptons with zero color charges and the six d quark spots with red (r), green (g) or blue (b) color charges.

In sum, everything about the state of a system of any number of spot cubes is thought to be included in the system state vector -- essentially a spatial pattern of 0-state and 1-state M and L bits.

Next, the time development of the system state is exactly determined by four bit operations -- unconditional, scalar, vector and strong -- applied sequentially, one each in a quantified minimum time unit called the tick (Eqs. 7-10, 13-14, 23-26 in [1]). The present focus is the strong bit operation [2] where 1-state bits may change direction or "scatter". Specifically, a 1-state bit may transfer from a spot unit in one dimension to a spot unit in another spatial dimension (white arrows in Fig. 2).

The direction of the strong bit operation depends on spot handedness shown in Table 1, defined as the product of its lite signs (Eq. 30 in [1]). Spot handedness (Left = -1; Right = +1) uniquely determines the direction of 1-state bit motion in the strong bit operation, tabulated in Fx, Fy and Fz lines of Table 1.

Finally, the new finding in this report is based on identification of the mite or lite bit type (M or L) in each strong bit operation of the source bit (before) and destination bit (after). The four possible permutations -- M:M, L:L, M:L and L:M -- are tabulated in Table 1 for each of the 24 possible strong bit operations in each tick.

Summing these possible 1-state bit transfers (Mite count in Table 1) produced the result that the strong bit operation in matter spots increased mite count from a maximum of 3 to a maximum of 9 -- a perhaps remarkable threefold increase. Conversely, in antimatter spots, mite count decreased from a maximum of 9 to a maximum of 3. These maximum values are based on a system state in which the strong potential (Eqs. 24,25 in [1]) evaluates to 1 for all of the involved spot unit pairs, which no doubt is a rather high energy situation. However, this new finding does suggest that the strong bit operation tends to increase 1-state mite content in matter spots and decrease 1-state mite content in antimatter spots.

With consistently defined particle thresholds, baryons composed of right-handed matter quarks form at markedly lower 1-state bit densities than antibaryons composed of left-handed antimatter quarks [5]. Likewise, matter electrons form at much lower bit density than antimatter positrons. Indeed, it was found that matter particles substantially out-number antimatter particles over almost the entire bit density range, from near zero (dubbed absolute vacuum) to absolute maximum density.

Previous work has presented several possible real-time mechanisms for matter-antimatter asymmetry.

1. Mechanisms for this demonstrated matter asymmetry are somewhat different for leptons and baryons. For electrons, incoming 1-state bits are trapped in a 12 tick bit cycle [3] and therefore tend to rapidly reach particle threshold of two or three mites [6]. In contrast, 1-state bits in positron spots participate in three 84 tick cycles traversing adjacent spot cubes and therefore spend less time in the positron spot itself decreasing the odds that positron mite count will reach particle threshold.

A similar situation pertains to nucleons such as the proton with its 84 tick bit cycle. For this reason, the bit density threshold for proton formation is much greater than for electron formation [5].

2. A further mechanism favoring baryon matter asymmetry is that 1-state bits spend more time in right-handed d quark spots than in left-handed antimatter d quark spots, within the proton's spot cube. Based on a tick-by-tick analysis of a single 1-state bit, a previous report on the central baryon bit cycle [4] reported that the 1-state bit, whether of M or L type, spent more time (ticks) in matter d quarks than in anti-matter d quarks. This finding may have revealed a mechanism, namely more time spent in matter d quarks than in antimatter d quarks, which might account for matter-antimatter asymmetry to some extent. Note that such a mechanism operates in real-time, favoring matter over antimatter continuously, unlike the perhaps unfounded belief of many physicists that this asymmetry is a "mystery", an "unsolved problem", a result of some events long ago (big bang) or who knows what.

3. The present discovery that the BM strong bit operation increases 1-state mites in all matter spots and decreases them in all antimatter spots may provide a further and perhaps more effective mechanism producing present matter-antimatter asymmetry in real-time. As in the central baryon bit cycle work, this mechanism operates all the time in the present as derived from the postulates of BM along with a physical interpretation of BM space (Figs. 1-3). In sum, matter-antimatter asymmetry may result entirely from ongoing processes rather than some imagined events in the distant past in the early universe.

[1] Keene, J. J. "Binary mechanics" J. Bin. Mech. July, 2010.
[2] Keene, J. J. "Strong operation disabled by inertia" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[3] Keene, J. J. "Physical interpretation of binary mechanical space" J. Bin. Mech. February, 2011.
[4] Keene, J. J. "The central baryon bit cycle" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[5] Keene, J. J. "Vacuum thresholds" J. Bin. Mech. March, 2011.
[6] Keene, J. J. "Dark matter and energy" J. Bin. Mech. May, 2011.
© 2014 James J Keene